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Table 7 Trends in labour force indicators for assessing gender imbalances, selected occupations, 5 LIS countries, 1991–1997

From: Assessing human resources for health: what can be learned from labour force surveys?

  Denmark Netherlands Russian Federation United Kingdom United States of America
  1992 1997 1991 1994 1992 1995 1991 1997 1991 1997
Proportion female
Physicians 23% 31% 21% 30% 70% 67% 43% 35% 20% 23%
Nursing and midwifery professionals 97% 96% 84% 79% (100%) (100%) 88% 91% 93% 94%
Other health professionals 41% 46% (13%) (33%) 52% 67% 44% 39% 24% 32%
Nursing and midwifery associate professionals 97% 97% 85% 86% 98% 97% 93% 94% 91% 88%
Modern health associate professionals 91% 88% 85% 88% 83% 87% 76% 85% 81% 77%
Physical and engineering science professionals 12% 13% 9% 4% 48% 49% 10% 10% 12% 12%
Teaching associate professionals 77% 82% 61% 72% 97% 94% 79% 82% 75% 76%
Ratio of women's/men's average hours worked
Physicians NA NA (0.4) (0.7) 0.8 0.9 0.9 0.8 1.1 1.0
Nursing and midwifery professionals NA NA 0.6 0.7 .. .. 0.8 0.8 0.9 0.9
Other health professionals NA NA (1.5) (0.4) 1.1 (1.1) (1.8) 0.8 0.9 0.9
Nursing and midwifery associate professionals NA NA 0.8 0.8 0.8 1.1 0.7 0.8 1.2 1.0
Modern health associate professionals NA NA 0.6 0.7 0.9 1.1 0.8 0.8 0.9 0.9
Physical and engineering science professionals NA NA 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9 1.0 1.0 0.9
Teaching associate professionals NA NA 0.8 0.8 0.8 1.0 0.8 0.9 0.9 0.9
Ratio of women's/men's average earnings
Physicians 0.7 0.8 (0.7) (0.6) 0.6 0.7 0.7 1.0 0.6 0.7
Nursing and midwifery professionals (0.8) (0.7) 0.5 0.7 .. .. 0.8 0.7 1.1 0.8
Other health professionals 0.7 0.9 .. .. 0.6 (1.1) (1.0) 0.6 0.6 0.6
Nursing and midwifery associate professionals (0.9) 0.7 0.6 0.8 (1.0) (2.6) 0.5 0.8 0.9 0.7
Modern health associate professionals 1.0 0.9 0.6 0.5 1.0 (0.9) 0.5 0.5 0.8 0.7
Physical and engineering science professionals 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 0.7 0.8 0.6 0.8 0.9 0.8
Teaching associate professionals 0.9 0.9 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.5 0.8 0.7 0.8 0.8
  1. NA = Not available due to questionnaire design. Figures in parentheses refer to sample sizes of fewer than 10 cases. .. = No observations in survey sample.