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Table 1 Conditions of recruitment and temporary residence in selected countries

From: Developing evidence-based ethical policies on the migration of health workers: conceptual and practical challenges

Country Admission conditions Availability of domestic workers as grounds for refusal Quotas Length of stay (possibility for renewal)
Australia Nominated by employer (exceptional stay of 3 months) Yes No 2 years (renewable once)
     4 years (renewable for teachers)
     3 months to 4 years for business specialists
Work permit required Preliminary authorization Yes No Maximum 3 years (renewable)
No work permit required Bilateral agreements No No Maximum 9 months (renewable)
United States     
H-1B (specialists) Prevailing wage required BA (4-year degree) + practice in the occupation No Yes Initial admission for 3 years (renewable once)
O (extraordinary ability) Consultation with peers No No Up to 10 years, depending on activity (must continue to work in field of expertise)
United Kingdom Employer must apply for work permit Yes a No Up to 4 years (renewals possible)
  Restricted to highly skilled persons ('key workers')    
   Adequate command of English   
France Employer must apply for work permit Yes a No 9 months (renewable once and in exceptional cases twice)
Netherlands Employer must apply for work permit Yes a No 1 year (renewable)
Germany Employer must apply for work permit Yes No 1 year (renewable)
  1. (a) Exceptions for certain activities, or pay-related Sources: OECD, Trends in International Migration, 1998 and 1999 Editions, Paris