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Table 3 Human resources needs and salary costs for initiating all those eligible for antiretroviral therapy (ART) and maintaining them on ART for one year, under different treatment strategies

From: Human resources needs for universal access to antiretroviral therapy in South Africa: a time and motion study

  Human resources needs Costs
Nurse- months × 1,000 (95% CI) Nurse FTEs × 1,000 (95% CI) Counselor months × 1,000 (95% CI) Counselor FTEs × 1,000 (95% CI) Doctor- months × 1,000 (95% CI) Doctor FTEs × 1,000 (95% CI) Total salary costs, in million ZAR) (95% CI) Proportion of current HIV sector budget, % (95% CI)a
Point estimate b         
CD4 ≤200 12 (8 to 16) 1.0 (0.7 to 1.3) 20 (12 to 28) 1.7 (1.0 to 2.3) 2 (1 to 2) 0.1 (0.1 to 0.2) 12 (8 to 16) 12 (8 to 16)
CD4 ≤350 (TB or pregnant); CD4 ≤200 (all other HIV-infected people) 15 (10 to 20) 1.3 (0.9 to 1.7) 27 (16 to 37) 2.2 (1.4 to 3.1) 2 (1 to 3) 0.2 (0.1 to 0.2) 15 (10 to 20) 15 (10 to 20)
CD4 ≤350 26 (18 to 35) 2.2 (1.5 to 2.9) 45 (28 to 63) 3.8 (2.3 to 5.2) 3 (2 to 4) 0.3 (0.2 to 0.4) 26 (18 to 35) 26 (18 to 35)
CD4 ≤500 51 (34 to67) 4.2 (2.8 to 5.6) 87 (53 to 121) 7.3 (4.4 to 10.1) 6 (5 to 8) 0.5 (0.4 to 0.7) 51 (34 to67) 51 (34 to67)
All HIV-positive people 74 (50 to 99) 6.2 (4.2 to 8.2) 129 (79 to 179) 10.7 (6.6 to 14.9) 9 (7 to 12) 0.8 (0.6 to 1.0) 74 (50 to 99) 74 (50 to 99)
High estimate b         
CD4 ≤200 17 (11 to 22) 1.4 (0.9 to 1.8) 29 (17 to 40) 2.4 (1.5 to 3.3) 2 (1 to 3) 0.2 (0.1 to 0.2) 17 (11 to 22) 17 (11 to 22)
CD4 ≤350 (TB or pregnant); CD4 ≤200 (all other HIV-infected people) 20 (13 to 26) 1.6 (1.1 to 2.2) 34 (21 to 48) 2.8 (1.7 to 4.0) 3 (2 to 3) 0.2 (0.2 to 0.3) 20 (13 to 26) 20 (13 to 26)
CD4 ≤350 30 (20 to 39) 2.5 (1.7 to 3.3) 51 (31 to 71) 4.2 (2.6 to 5.9) 4 (3 to 5) 0.3 (0.2 to 0.4) 30 (20 to 39) 30 (20 to 39)
CD4 ≤500 54 (37 to 72) 4.5 (3.0 to 6.0) 94 (57 to 130) 7.8 (4.8 to 10.9) 7 (5 to 9) 0.6 (0.4 to 0.7) 54 (37 to 72) 54 (37 to 72)
All HIV-positive people 80 (54 to 106) 6.6 (4.5 to 8.8) 137 (84 to 191) 11.4 (7.0 to 15.9) 10(7 to 13) 0.8 (0.6 to 1.1) 80 (54 to 106) 80 (54 to 106)
Low estimate b         
CD4 ≤200 9 (6 to 11) 0.7 (0.5 to 1.0) 15 (9 to 20) 1.2 (0.7 to 1.7) 1 (1 to 1) 0.1 (0.1 to 0.1) 9 (6 to 11) 9 (6 to 11)
CD4 ≤350 (TB or pregnant); CD4 ≤200 (all other HIV-infected people) 13 (8 to 17) 1.1 (0.7 to 1.4) 22 (13 to 30) 1.8 (1.1 to 2.5) 2 (2 to 3) 0.1 (0.1 to 0.2) 13 (8 to 17) 13 (8 to 17)
CD4 ≤350 25 (17 to 33) 2.1 (1.4 to 2.7) 43 (26 to 59) 3.5 (2.2 to 4.9) 3 (2 to 4) 0.3 (0.2 to 0.3) 25 (17 to 33) 25 (17 to 33)
CD4 ≤500 48 (32 to 64) 4.0 (2.7 to 5.3) 83 (51 to 115) 6.9 (4.2 to 9.6) 6 (4 to 8) 0.5 (0.4 to 0.7) 48 (32 to 64) 48 (32 to 64)
All HIV-positive people 72 (48 to 95) 6.0 (4.0 to 7.9) 123 (75 to 171) 10.3 (6.2 to 14.3) 9 (6 to 12) 0.8 (0.5 to 1.0) 72 (48 to 95) 72 (48 to 95)
  1. CD4, CD4 cell count (expressed as cells/μl); FTE, full-time equivalent; ZAR = South African rand.
  2. aCurrent total expenditure: estimate of the total amount spent on preventing and treating HIV in South Africa in 2009 (ZAR 14 billion) [66].
  3. bFor the calculations of the point, high, and low estimates, we used the point, high, and low estimates of the number of people living with HIV in South Africa published in the most recent UNAIDS world AIDS report [66].