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Table 1 Characteristics of the survey sample

From: Inflows of foreign-born physicians and their access to employment and work experiences in health care in Finland: qualitative and quantitative study

  Primary care Specialized care Private sector   *
Age (Mean, (SD) 43 (10) 43 (11) 50 (8)   F = 7.3, P <0.001
Women (%) 54 77 45   χ2 = 32.6, P <0.001
Country of origin (%)     % n χ2 = 15.7, P = 0.003
Estonian 27 35 33 32 150  
Russian 42 25 24 32 151  
Other 31 39 44 37 173  
Residence permit based on (%)    χ2 = 36.9, P <0.001
Ethnic returnee 18 7 10 12 52  
Family 44 32 51 38 168  
Work 35 60 32 48 209  
Refugee/asylum seeker 3 1 7 3 11  
Arrived in Finland (%)      χ2 = 48.3, P <0.001
Before 1989 13 12 40 15 72  
1990–1999 34 29 51 33 155  
2000–2005 30 40 4 33 155  
2006–2010 23 20 4 20 93  
Specialization (%)      χ2 = 113.6, P <0.001
No 45 7 20 22 107  
Ongoing specialization 25 37 14 30 149  
Specialized 30 58 66 48 240  
  1. *Based on χ2 test for categorical variables and on F-statistics on continuous variables.