Table legend: ‘0’ practitioners in countries where individual cadres do not exist have been excluded in analyses of mean proportions for individual cadres and considered to be zero when cadres are combined. Botswana: location data for ophthalmic nurses comes from the government sector only. Ghana: data on ophthalmologists and optometrists does not include practitioners in the private sector. Malawi: ‘capital’ was interpreted as the three largest cities in the country. Uganda: data for mid-level refractionists does not include practitioners in the private sector. Figures in bold indicate ratios for combined categories of practitioners.