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Table 1 Provider characteristics in intervention and comparison groups at baseline and endline (n = 101)

From: Effects of a performance and quality improvement intervention on the work environment in HIV-related care: a quasi-experimental evaluation in Zambia

  Baseline Endline
  Comparison Intervention P value Comparison Intervention P value
  n = 16 n = 27   n = 29 n = 29  
Provider cadre a (%)       
Nurse 37.5 (6) 29.6 (8) 0.311 55.2 (16) 20.7 (6) 0.100
Midwife 31.3 (5) 22.2 (6) 13.8 (4) 13.8 (4)
Clinical officer 31.3 (5) 18.5 (5) 10.3 (3) 17.2 (5)
Military medical assistant 0.0 (0) 14.8 (4) 13.8 (4) 20.7 (6)
Pharmacy staff 0.0 (0) 3.7 (1) 0.0 (0) 13.8 (4)
Laboratory staff 0.0 (0) 0.0 (0) 6.9 (2) 10.3 (3)
Lay counsellor 0.0 (0) 11.1 (3) 0.0 (0) 3.5 (1)
Service areas among clinical staff b n = 16 n = 23   n = 27 n = 21  
PMTCT 68.8 (11) 52.2 (12) 0.313 51.9 (14) 52.4 (11) 0.972
Antenatal care 68.8 (11) 56.4 (13) 0.453 46.2 (12) 52.4 (11) 0.679
ART 56.3 (9) 52.2 (12) 0.808 51.9 (14) 61.9 (13) 0.497
Labour and delivery 56.3 (9) 52.2 (12) 0.808 29.6 (8) 42.9 (9) 0.352
Postnatal care 62.5 (10) 56.5 (13) 0.718 44.4 (12) 42.9 (9) 0.915
Otherc 0.0 (0) 34.8 (8) 0.007 61.5 (16) 57.1 (12) 0.766
Number of services offered (mean, SD) 3.1 (.42) 3.0 (.40) 0.891 2.9 (.30) 3.1 (.31) 0.724
Socio-demographics (all providers)       
Male (%)b 66.7 48.2 0.248 58.6 51.7 0.597
Mean age (SD)d 35.6 (5.2) 35.1 (8.8) 0.844 35.6 (6.1) 33.8 (7.4) 0.326
Mean years at this health facility (SD)d 4.2 (5.1) 6.1 (6.5) 0.316 5.9 (5.5) 5.5 (4.8) 0.750
Mean years ever worked in ZDF (SD)d 8.3 (5.4) 11.3 (9.2) 0.246 10.3 (5.7) 9.1 (7.3) 0.522
  1. a P value from Fisher’s exact test.
  2. b P value from χ2 (Provider can work in more than one service).
  3. c“Other” service areas include outpatient services, family planning, and administration.
  4. d P value from t-test.
  5. PMTCT, Prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV.