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Table 1 Variables selected in the models

From: Evaluating the effect of Japan’s 2004 postgraduate training programme on the spatial distribution of physicians

Variables Explanation
Measures of needs  
Age-adjusted mortality  
Physician density The number of physicians who work for any medical facilities per 1,000 population
Hospital physician density The number of physicians who work for hospitals per 1,000 population
Clinic physician density The number of physicians who work for clinics per 1,000 population
Measures of residential quality  
Urban/rural status The metropolitan area code defined by the Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications
1) urban centres, 2) suburban areas,  
3) rural areas
Per capita income  
Percent of the population As a proxy for educational level in the community
with a university-level education  
Unemployment rate The number of unemployed individuals per the number of all individuals currently in the labour force (workforce)
Percent of white-collar workers The number of professionals, technical workers, managers, and administrators per number of workforce
Primary school students per number As a proxy for children’s educational opportunities
of primary schools  
Crime rate The number of crimes per total population as a proxy for neighbourhood safety
Temperature As a proxy for climate discomfort. The discomfort index was calculated by using temperature and humidity and used in the model.
Other factors  
Total population  
Hospital beds per 1,000 population  
The presence or absence of As a proxy for continuing education
medical schools