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Table 5 Results of multivariate ordinary least-squares regression models for all physiciansa

From: Evaluating the effect of Japan’s 2004 postgraduate training programme on the spatial distribution of physicians

  1998 to 2002 2006 to 2010 P-valueof coefficient equality test
Main predictors of interest Estimate coefficient SE b 95% CIs c P- value Estimate coefficient SE b 95% CIs c P- value
Measure of public health need
Age-adjusted mortality -97.07 33.42 [-162.58 to -31.56] .004 108.90 61.86 [-12.35 to 230.15] .078 .004
Physician densityd -5.55 4.32 [-14.02 to 2.92] .199 64.80 6.79 [51.5 to 78.11] < .001 < .001
Measure of residential quality
Urban centre -26.71 11.99 [-50.21 to -3.21] .026 68.81 17.05 [35.4 to 102.22] < .001 < .001
Suburban -5.86 5.33 [-16.31 to 4.59] .272 -5.04 8.05 [-20.83 to 10.74] .531 .933
Rural area Reference Reference  
SES composite indexe 6.96 3.77 [-0.43 to 14.35] .065 18.64 5.72 [7.42 to 29.86] .001 .089
  1. aThe models included the control variables: total population, number of primary school students per number of primary schools, crime rate, discomfort index calculated by temperature and humidity, hospital beds per 1,000 population, and the presence or absence of medical schools.
  2. bStandard error.
  3. cConfidence intervals.
  4. dRatio of number of physicians to 1,000 population.
  5. eSocioeconomic status (SES) composite index was created from the percent of the population with a college-level education, percent of white-collar workers, the unemployment rate, and per capita income.