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Table 9 Results of multivariate ordinary least-squares regression models for physicians working at the clinicsa

From: Evaluating the effect of Japan’s 2004 postgraduate training programme on the spatial distribution of physicians

  1998 to 2002 2006 to 2010 P-valueof coefficient equality test
Main predictors of interest Estimated coefficient SE b 95% CIs c P- value Estimated coefficient SE b 95% CIs c P- value
Measure of public health need         
Age-adjusted mortality -30.98 16.38 [-63.08 to 1.12] .059 49.23 25.59 [-0.93 to 99.39] .0544 .009
Hospital physician densityd 9.90 3.02 [3.98 to 15.83] .001 23.53 3.87 [15.95 to 31.1] < .001 .006
Clinic physician densitye -17.27 6.96 [-30.92 to -3.63] .013 -19.64 8.58 [-36.46 to -2.83] .022 .830
Measure of residential quality         
Urban centre 2.90 5.87 [-8.6 to 14.39] .622 21.00 7.08 [7.12 to 34.88] .003 .050
Suburban -4.84 2.62 [-9.97 to 0.29] .064 1.50 3.34 [-5.05 to 8.04] .654 .136
Rural area Reference Reference  
SES composite indexf 7.55 1.81 [4.01 to 11.1] <.001 8.57 2.37 [3.93 to 13.21] < .001 .734
  1. aThe models included the control variables: total population, number of primary school students per number of primary schools, crime rate, discomfort index calculated by temperature and humidity, hospital beds per 1,000 population, and the presence or absence of medical schools.
  2. bStandard error.
  3. cConfidence intervals.
  4. dRatio of number of physicians working at the hospitals to population.
  5. eRatio of number of physicians working at the clinics to population.
  6. fSocioeconomic status (SES) composite index was created from the percent of the population with a college-level education, percent of white-collar workers, the unemployment rate, and per capita income.