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Table 3 Potential effect of selected site characteristics on human resources for health (HRH) needs

From: Estimating health workforce needs for antiretroviral therapy in resource-limited settings

Site characteristics

Potential effect on HRH needs


Increase HRH

Decrease HRH

Inadequate physical space

Decreased efficiency of staff due to ineffective patient flow.


Higher HIV/AIDS prevalence

Higher HIV/AIDS in staff and families resulting in higher absence and loss.*

Limited staff time required to ensure treating maximum number of patients.

ART integrated into general medical services

Increased staff need to be trained if significant time spent on non-HIV/AIDS/ART care.

• May improve coordination of care, particularly if multiple services co-located and make HRH use more efficient.

• May be more beneficial as disease management changes focus to chronic disease management.

Rural site

Increased need for longer -distance outreach, mobile teams. Higher probability of need to integrate into other non-HIV/AIDS clinics due to smaller absolute numbers.


Urban site

If population more transient, may require more HRH for outreach and adherence.

• Potentially easier transportation for immediate catchment area to come to clinic.

• Potentially easier travel for outreach.

• If higher prevalence, population may reside closer to ART site.

Weak linkages with other services (e.g. counselling, social support)

Increased HRH to provide full spectrum of care and services on-site.

  1. *This effect is decreasing as programmes expand ART to their staff