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Table 2 Bivariate and multivariate regression results

From: Are doctors and nurses associated with coverage of essential health services in developing countries? A cross-sectional study

  Antenatal care Use of skilled birth attendant Caesarean section Measles immunization TB case diagnosis Care for respiratory infection
Bivariate associations N = 78 N = 97 N = 55 N = 89 N = 81 N = 45
Density of doctors (per 1000) 0.5(< 0.01) 1.4 (< 0.01) 0.4 (< 0.01) 0.6 (< 0.01) 0.2 (< 0.01) 0.2 (< 0.01)
Density of nurses and midwives (per 1000) 0.7(< 0.01) 2.0(< 0.01) 0.6(< 0.01) 0.8(< 0.01) 0.4(0.01) 0.3(< 0.01)
Density of health workers (per 1000) 0.8 (< 0.01) 2.1(< 0.01) 0.6(< 0.01) 0.8(< 0.01) 0.4(0.01) 0.3(< 0.01)
Model set 1 (doctors and nurses)       
GDP per capita (PPP) 0.38 (0.23) 1.00 (< 0.01) 0.58 (0.02) 0.41 (0.07) 0.37 (0.23) 0.14 (0.46)
Female literacy rate (%) 0.92 (0.04) 0.24 (0.68) 0.94 (< 0.01) -0.23 (0.53) 0.28 (0.54) 0.61 (< 0.01)
Density of doctors (per 1000) -0.11(0.59) 0.39 (0.14) -0.03 (0.81) 0.41 (0.01) -0.05 (0.81) -0.07 (0.51)
Density of nurses and midwives (per 1000) 0.21 (0.38) 0.75 (0.02) 0.02 (0.89) 0.27 (0.18) 0.11 (0.70) 0.05 (0.69)
Land area (km2) -0.37(< 0.01) -0.26 (0.02) -0.03 (0.72) -0.08 (0.22) 0.01 (0.94) 0.10 (0.16)
Population in rural area (%) -0.68(0.14) -0.68 (0.28) -0.25 (0.60) 0.78 (0.06) 0.01 (0.98) -0.21 (0.52)
Adjusted R2 0.39 0.60 0.57 0.38 0.03 0.34
Model set 2 (aggregate health workers)       
GDP per capita (PPP) 0.29 (0.34) 1.05 (< 0.01) 0.60 (0.01) 0.46 (0.05) 0.37 (0.22) 0.10 (0.56)
Female literacy rate (%) 0.80 (0.07) 0.28 (0.63) 0.92 (< 0.01) -0.14 (0.69) 0.27 (0.54) 0.58 (< 0.01)
Density of health workers (per 1000) 0.22 (0.37) 1.16 (< 0.01) -0.003(0.98) 0.69(< 0.01) 0.04 (0.87) 0.01 (0.93)
Land area (km2) -0.36(< 0.01) -0.25 (0.03) - 0.03 (0.71) -0.07 (0.29) 0.004 (0.97) 0.10 (0.13)
Population in rural area (%) -0.50(0.24) -0.63 (0.30) -0.25 (0.60) 0.68 (0.09) 0.04 (0.95) -0.15 (0.65)
Adjusted R2 0.39 0.60 0.58 0.37 0.05 0.35
  1. Note: all independent variables are ln-transformed; all dependent variables are transformed using logistic form