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Table 2 Definitions of health service providers

From: Human resources for health at the district level in Indonesia: the smoke and mirrors of decentralization

Provider Description
Doctor (Dokter) Graduate of an Indonesian medical school licensed by the government.
Nurse (Perawat) Graduate of:
  (1) a Sekolah Perawat Kesehatan (SPK): students enter at the end of junior high school and the SPK training is regarded as equivalent to senior high school; or
  (2): an Akademi Perawatan for which students enter at the end of senior high school; or
  (3): Fakultas Ilmu Keperawatan, a university-level course at the first degree level; there are a small number of second degree-level graduates as well. All these institutions must be licensed by the government.
Midwife (Bidan) Graduate of:
  (1) Sekolah Bidan (SB): students enter at the end of junior high school and this training is regarded as equivalent to senior high school; or
  (2): Program Pendidikan Bidan (PPB) – entrants to this one-year programme have an SPK nursing qualification; or
  (3) Akademi Kebidanan (Akbid), which students enter at the end of senior high school.
  Originally midwives were trained as SB until this programme was closed in 1984. After a five-year period of no training of midwives, the government started training again in 1989 through the PPB as village midwives; the PPB was closed in 1998 and was replaced by the Akbid programme.