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Table 2 Characteristics of violence

From: Workplace violence towards workers in the emergency departments of Palestinian hospitals: a cross-sectional study

  Physical Non-physicala
  F % F %
Exposure to violence in the past 12 months     
 Yes 158 35.6 316 71.2
 No 286 64.4 128 28.8
Perpetrators of violence     
 Families/companions/visitors 134 85.4 233 79.5
 Patients 16 10.2 42 14.3
 Colleagues 7 4.5 18 6.1
Need for treatment/care following violent incident     
 Did not need treatment 236 83.4 118 76.1
 Treated myself 31 11.0 23 14.8
 Needed treatment but did not receive 9 3.2 11 7.1
 Treated by health professional (physician/nurse) 7 2.5 3 1.9
Causes of violence     
 Waiting time 75 47.5 137 43.4
 Lack of violence prevention methods 57 36.1 118 37.3
 Unmet expectation of patients/families 56 35.4 100 31.6
 Lack of medicines or needed services 28 17.7 59 18.7
 Anxiety/fear/stress 26 16.5 73 23.1
 Mental illness 23 14.6 47 14.9
 Staff attitudes 16 10.1 33 10.4
 Influence of illness/pain 12 7.6 42 13.3
 Lack of people awareness 11 7.0 17 5.4
 Influence of substance (drug/alcohol) 8 5.1 19 6.0
 Do not know/others 6 3.8 12 3.8
  1. aExposure at least one time to either verbal abuses, threats, or sexual harassments; the prevalence of these were, respectively, 69.8%, 48.4%, and 8.6%.