Skip to main content

Table 3 Exposure to physical and non-physical violence by participant characteristics

From: Workplace violence towards workers in the emergency departments of Palestinian hospitals: a cross-sectional study

  Physical Non-physicala
F % χ 2 pvalue F % χ 2 pvalue
Region         
 West Bank 42 32.1 1.007 0.316 92 70.2 0.08 0.77
 Gaza 116 37.1    224 71.6   
Ownership         
 Governmental 122 37.8 2.469 0.116 245 75.9 12.65 <0.001
 Non-governmental 36 29.8    71 58.7   
Monthly ER visits         
 <3 000 visits 92 25.0 7.123 0.028 92 58.7 17.962 <0.001
 3 000–9 000 visits 96 33.3    96 62.5   
 >9 000 visits 256 40.2    256 78.9   
Gender         
 Male 128 37.5 2.44 0.18 241 70.7 0.177 0.674
 Female 30 29.1    75 72.8   
Age         
 ≤30 years 87 41.2 5.59 0.018 162 76.8 6.16 0.013
 >30 years 71 30.5    154 66.1   
Job category         
 Physicians 41 28.9 4.5 0.105 112 87.9 9.45 0.009
 Nurses 65 40.4    116 72.0   
 Administrative 52 36.9    88 62.4   
Education         
 <Bachelor’s 58 40.3 2.047 0.153 99 68.8 0.609 0.435
 ≥Bachelor’s 100 33.3    217 72.3   
Experience in ER         
 <5 years 90 36.0 4.66 0.097 177 70.8 7.34 0.025
 5–9 years 46 41.4    88 79.3   
 ≥10 years 22 26.5    51 61.4   
  1. χ2: Pearson chi-square.
  2. aNonphysical violence includes threats, verbal abuse and sexual harassment.