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Table 3 Health policy options for targeting health workforce imbalances and alter health-care outcomes (adapted from [17] and [86])

From: Handling healthcare workforce planning with care: where do we stand?

Field Policy option
Education Increase numbers of new students
  Recruit foreign graduates
  Recognize previous learning
  Improve curriculum content
Regulatory Recognize overseas qualifications
  Introduce temporary employment regulations
  Subsidized education for return of service
  Enhanced scope of practice
  Different types of health workers
Financial incentives Increase trainee salaries
  Raise wages
  Provide non-wage benefits
  Introduce incentives for return of skilled migrants
  Establish retirement policies
  Employ lay health workers
Professional and personal support Better living conditions
  Safe and supportive working environment
  Career development programmes
  Public recognition measures