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Table 1 Gender discrimination in health workforce systems [4]

From: Integration of gender-transformative interventions into health professional education reform for the 21st century: implications of an expert review

Form of discrimination Description
Sexual harassment Unwanted, unwelcome, or offensive conduct that changes the terms and conditions of school or work, where either a person’s rejection of, or submission to, such conduct is used explicitly or implicitly as a basis for a decision that affects that person’s education or career (quid pro quo), or conduct that creates an intimidating, hostile, or humiliating work environment for the recipient (hostile environment). A form of violence as well as discrimination.
Pregnancy discrimination Exclusions, restrictions, or distinctions made on the basis of pregnancy, childbirth, or related conditions, such as unwillingness to hire, promote, or retain female students or workers who may get pregnant and leave school or the workforce or who require maternity leave and benefits. This type of discrimination is related to:
Family responsibility discrimination Exclusions, restrictions, or distinctions against individuals (such as pregnant women, mothers and fathers of young children, parents of disabled children, and individuals who care for their aging parents or sick spouses/partners) based on their responsibilities to care for family members.
Pregnancy and family responsibility discrimination are related forms that target a broad range of reproductive functions and may be viewed together as caregiver (or reproductive role) discrimination. These related forms of discrimination usually target women of childbearing age who are not able to equally access opportunities for education, hiring, or promotion.
Occupational gender segregation Concentration of men and women in different jobs (horizontal) or at different levels (vertical) in a job hierarchy. What has been called gender stratification [3] may refer to vertical or horizontal segregation or both.
Gender stereotyping Overgeneralized characterizations of persons in a particular group, occurring when the personal characteristics deemed necessary for a job are inconsistent with characteristics generally associated with a particular sex.