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Table 3 Students’ experience of gender discrimination and inequalities

From: Integration of gender-transformative interventions into health professional education reform for the 21st century: implications of an expert review

Phase of academic life cycle (students) Examples and results
Career selection • Gender stereotypes and segregation in health professional cadres such as nursing and nutrition (Kenya) [10]
Admission and entry • Negative attitudes against girls and women pursuing training and scholarship opportunities [6]
• Lower admission rates of female students at tertiary education institutions (Rwanda) [53]
Course participation and completion • Threats of failing grades against female students made by male faculty if students refuse sexual advances, leading to difficulty concentrating on studies or failed courses (Ghana, Kenya, Nigeria, Uganda, Zimbabwe) [10, 20, 5456]
• Demotion fees levied against students for taking time off for pregnancy and falling behind in their programs (Kenya) [10]
Career progression • Sexual harassment during medical training, affecting selection of medical specialty and residency programs (Japan, Sweden, USA) [5, 5760]
• Attitudes discouraging female medical residents from becoming pregnant (USA) [8]
Retention and graduation • Unsafe living conditions, limiting students’ ability to safely access university facilities and contributing to dropouts of female students [11]
• Threats of failing grades against female students by male faculty if students refuse sexual advances, leading to graduation delays or dropouts (Ghana, Kenya, Nigeria, Uganda, Zimbabwe) [10, 20, 5356]
• Required suspension or termination of studies when female students become pregnant (Namibia, Kenya) [9, 10]
• Insufficient time for students with family and domestic responsibilities to participate in educational opportunities, contributing to dropouts (Tanzania, Uganda, UK, USA) [1113]
• Higher dropout rates of female students at all educational levels (Rwanda) [53]