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Table 4 Faculty members’ experience of gender discrimination and inequalities

From: Integration of gender-transformative interventions into health professional education reform for the 21st century: implications of an expert review

Phase of academic life cycle (faculty) Examples and results
Recruitment • Challenges in balancing work and family obligations, contributing to faculty leaving their positions or turning down employment offers (USA) [31]
• Hiring preferences for male faculty due to belief that female faculty taking maternity leave will be disruptive (Kenya) [10]
Career advancement opportunities • Discriminatory promotion decisions against female staff due to resistance to sexual advances (Nigeria) [20]
• Lower number of publications by female medical faculty with children (USA) [31]
• Taking reduced workload or time off for family responsibilities seen as a reflection of lower commitment to work (Australia, USA) [16, 61]
Leadership • Higher numbers of male faculty in senior leadership, even in cadres traditionally considered female occupations, such as nursing (Kenya) [10]
Satisfaction and retention • Lower rates of career satisfaction among female medical faculty with children than among male medical faculty with children (USA) [15, 17]