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Table 1 A comparison of commitment-based approach and control-based approach to HRM

From: Controlling healthcare professionals: how human resource management influences job attitudes and operational efficiency

HRM practice Commitment-based approach Input control Output control Behavioral control
Recruitment/selection • Selection to fit organization over job-specific requirements • Rigorous selection to job and organization fit • Selection of well-qualified staff • Selection of staff to fit job/task requirements
Training and development • Extensive training
• Long-term investment in training
• Training plays the joint role of ensuring employees have the requisite abilities to do the job now and in the future as well as an understanding of the values and goals of the organization • Ongoing firm-specific training and development • Limited training or task-specific training
Performance review/appraisal • Development oriented
• Managers who facilitate rather than supervise
• The focus is on developing individuals who are intrinsically dedicated to the organization • Supervisors set targets for employees to pursue
• Information on results is readily available allowing employees to make their own judgments without supervisor intervention.
• Employees have discretion in the method they use to accomplish established goals
• Performance review is based on the results achieved
• Appraisal is based on supervisor close monitoring of employee behavior
• Responsibilities are standardized and imposed top-down with an overriding concern for employees complying with procedures and methods and not results obtained
• Feedback is used as a remedial tool
Reward and recognition • Market compensation or above, aligned with team and organizational goals
• Reinforcement of team achievements
• Limited focus on external inducements
• Focus on the cultivation of intrinsic rewards
• Rewards are closely linked to performance outcomes • Low wages and benefits
Predicted outcomes • Committed and engaged workforce, high trust, cooperation, and positive social climate • Cooperation, intrinsic dedication to the organization, and high levels of commitment and motivation • Goal accomplishment as a means for achieving organizational effectiveness and performance • Increased efficiency, reliability, and quality
• Reduced direct labor costs and variation
• Minimize cost
  1. Adapted from [11, 13, 16, 2628]