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Table 1 Characteristics of included studies

From: A systematic review of physician retirement planning

Study Location Study method (source, if not self-administered) Sample size (response rate) Participants (average age and/or age range)
Anderson [37] United States Survey (administered by the American Medical Colleges and the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists) < Age 50, 2000 (40.3%)
> Age 50, 2100 (57.3%)
Obstetrician-gynecologists (average age <50 was 44 years, average age >50 was 65 years)
Austrom [58] United States Survey (modified version of American Association of Orthopaedic Surgeons survey) 1834 (43%) Multidisciplinary physicians and spouses (average age 75 years)
Baker [56] United States Survey 500 (46%) Psychiatric physicians (age 50 to 69 years)
Baker [59] United States Survey 125 (53%) Black psychiatrists (age 31 to 74 years)
Baker and Hishinuma [74] United States Survey AMA: 187 (58%); NMA: 85 (65%) Multidisciplinary physicians. AMA members (age 50 years or older), NMA members (age 30 years or older)
Batchelor [22] United States Survey/interviews 20 (80%) Senior women physicians (age 59 to 95 years)
Bieliauskas [75] United States Computerized cognitive test/survey 359 (82%) Surgeons (age 45 or older, average age 61.4 years)
Brett [51] Australia Survey 281 (59%) Multidisciplinary physicians (age 45 to 65, average age 52.4 years)
Burke [76] United Kingdom Administrative data, Department of Health and f
Insurance industry (the Dentists’ Provident Society)
393(N/A) Retired dentists (N/A)
Chambers [69] United Kingdom Survey 348 (72%) Multidisciplinary physicians (average age 55 years)
Crowson [6] United States Retrospective study (Duke University Hospital Department of Human Resources) 208 Multidisciplinary physicians (average age between 45 and 48.1)
Davidson [77] United Kingdom Survey 2398 (78%) Multidisciplinary physicians (average age mid-40s)
Davidson [52] United Kingdom Survey 1460 (85%) Multidisciplinary physicians (average age 48 years)
Deitch [48] United States Survey (ACR Committee on Manpower) 2804 (69%) Radiologists, radio-oncologists, and nuclear medicine specialists (average age in years <35 (11%), 35 and 44 (37%), 45 and 54 (32%) and 55 or older (20%).
De Santo [78] Algeria, Australia, Brazil, Egypt, France, Germany, Greece, Italy, Malta, Libya, Poland, Romania, Slovak Republic, Slovenia, Switzerland, The Netherlands, Tunisia, Turkey, UK and USA Survey 113 (89.1%) Active professors and emeritus/retired professors from 99 departments of medicine/universities worldwide (NA)
Dodds [46] United States Survey 96 (82%) Academic chairs of ophthalmology departments (age range <50 to >70, average age 58 years)
Donner [79] United States Review of data based on survey (ACR Commission on Human Resources, 2012 and 2013) N/A Radiologists
Draper [40] Australia and New Zealand Survey 281 (60%) Psychiatrists (ages 55–87 and average age 65.5 years)
Draper [80] Australia and New Zealand Survey (respondents were fellows of the Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists resident in Australia or New Zealand) 529 (57.9%) Psychiatrists (age 40 years and older)
Eagles [30] United Kingdom Survey 180 (50%) Consultant psychologists (N/A)
Evans and Ghosh [43] United States Survey 749 (17%) Headache medicine specialists
Farley [39] United States Survey (American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons in cooperation with the Association of American Medical Colleges Center for Workforce Studies) 3001 (33.5%) Orthopedic surgeons (age 50 years and older)
Fletcher and Schofield [38] Australia Data from the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (AIHW) Medical Labour Force Survey from 1995 to 2003 N/A Psychiatrists (age 50 years and over)
Florence [81] United States Survey 785(22%) Transplant surgeons (average age 48.7 years)
French [36] United Kingdom Survey 2923(61%) Consultants and specialists (average age 47 years)
French [23] United Kingdom Survey/interviews/focus groups 924 (50%) Multidisciplinary physicians (average age 43 years)
Gee [82] United States Telephone interview (Gallup Poll) 451 (89%) Urologists (age in years <36 (9%), 37 to 45 (29%), 46 to 54 (30%), 55 to 64 (25%), <65 (7%))
Goldberg [57] United States Survey of American College of Emergency Physicians members (two separate mailings in the fall of 2006 and winter of 2007) 1000 (80%) American College of Emergency Physicians members over the age of 55 years (average age 57 years)
Grauer and Campbell [50] Canada Survey 58 (53.7%) Multidisciplinary physicians (average age 71.2 years)
Greenfield and Proctor [83] United States Survey 659 (75%) Surgeons (age in years <50 (7%), 50–60 (29%), 60–70 (35%), >70 (28%)
Gregory and Menser, [63] United States Longitudinal (three wave) online survey 97, 91, 56 (65.5%, 54.9%, 58.4%), respectively Primary/ambulatory care physicians (N/A)
Grondin [61] Canada Survey 97 (71%) Thoracic surgeons (average age 47.7 years)
Hall [5] United States and Canada Survey 1444 APS members (35%); 148 pediatric department chairs (40%) Senior pediatricians and pediatric department chairs (ages 39 to 94, average age 65 years)
Heponiemi [44] Finland Survey (Finnish Health Care Professional Study) 1393 (27.9%) Multidisciplinary physicians (ages 45 to 65 years)
Hill [24] United Kingdom Semi-structured interviews/survey 23 (N/A) Dentists (NA)
Jacobson and Eran [25] Israel Interview 317 (89.5%) Multidisciplinary physicians (age 50 years or older)
Jonasson and Kwakwa [84] United States Survey 373 (84%) General surgeons (NA)
Joyce [42] Australia Longitudinal survey (Medicine in Australia: Balancing Employment and Life, Cycles 2009 to 2012) 1073 (2009, 82.64%, 2010, 82.24%, 2011, 75.51% and 2012, 75.32%) Physicians and specialists aged ≥65 years
Kendell and Pearce [85] United Kingdom Survey 173(82%) Consultant psychiatrists (NA)
Landon [49] United States Data for this study are from the first 2 rounds of the Community Tracking Study (CTS) Physician Survey 16,681 (63%) Primary care and specialist physicians initially spending at least 20 h/week in direct patient care activities were studied (average age 47.5 years for practicing and 63.0 years for retired physicians)
Lee [86] United States Telephone interview/survey 33 (75%) Multidisciplinary rural physicians (age 60 years or older)
Lee [87] United States Survey 995 (N/A) Surgeons (age in years <35 (13.37%), 35–44 (12.96%), 45–54 (18.69%), 55–65 (31.06%), >65 (23.92%))
Luce [7] United Kingdom Survey 518 (72.5%) Multidisciplinary physicians (age 45 years or older)
Moriarty [88] United States Survey sent to all members of the American College of Radiology (ACR), the Association of University Radiologists (AUR), and the Society of Chairs of Academic Radiology Departments (SCARD) ~37900 (11%) Practicing radiologists (NA)
McGuirt and McGuirt [89] United States Survey 438 (31.5%) Otolaryngologists (ages 40 to 80, average age 63.2 years)
Mears [41] United Kingdom Survey 835 (59%) Consultant psychologists (age 50 years or older)
Meghea and Sunshine [54] United States Survey (American College of Radiology’s 2003 Survey of Radiologists) 1676 (63%) Radiologists (ages 35 to 75 years)
Newton [26] United Kingdom Semi-structured interviews 21 (N/A) Multidisciplinary physicians (age 44 years or older)
Onyura [19] Canada Secondary analysis of data from a larger study on issues of late-career planning among academic physicians; semi-structured interviews 21 Academic physicians at a Canadian medical school (n = 21, average age = 63 years, age range = 46–72 years)
Orkin [34] United States Survey 8670 (37.2%) Anaesthesiologists (age 50–79 years, average age 60.1 years)
Peisah [45] Australia, Canada, United States Semi-structured interviews 25 (N/A) Multidisciplinary physicians (aged 60 or older, average age 67.5 years, age range = 60–88 years)
Pit and Hansen [16] Australia Survey 92(56%) Multidisciplinary physicians (average age 51 years)
Quandango [27] United States Semi-structured interviews 40 (N/A) Multidisciplinary physicians (ages 55 to 72)
Rayburn [31] United States American Medical Association Master file N/A Obstetrician-gynecologists
Reuben and Silliman [47] United States Survey 282 (70%) Multidisciplinary physicians (age 65 or older, average age 71 years)
Rittenhouse [33] United States Survey 967 (N/A) Multidisciplinary physicians (<55 years, 62.8%, 55–64 years, 27.3%, >65 years, 9.9%)
Rowe [90] United States Survey 169 (84%) Physicians (52–96 years)
Sansom [28] England Semi-structured interviews 23 General practitioners (50–60 years)
Shanafelt [53] United States Survey, American Society of Clinical Oncology 2998 (49.7%) US oncologists
Sibbald [32] United Kingdom Survey 1949 (N/A) Multidisciplinary physicians (average age 55 years)
Silver [29] Canada Focus groups 16 Academic physicians over 50 years old within the Department of Medicine at the University of Toronto
Smith [91] Canada National survey was administered to all Canadian otolaryngologists 65 (65%) Otolaryngologists who were identified to have a clinical practice composed of >50% rhinology (average age: 46 years)
Sutinen [35] Finland Survey 819 (55%) Multidisciplinary physicians (ages 26 to 63 years)
Van Greuningen [17] Netherlands Retrospective survey (2 waves) 520 (60%); 405 (54%) Self-employed general practitioners retired before age 65
Wakeford et al. [18] United Kingdom Interview 250 (79%) Multidisciplinary physicians (average age: 61.4 years)