
Selection ^{a}

Comparability ^{b}

Outcome ^{c}

Quality score


37

Representativeness of sample

Sample size

Nonrespondents

Ascertainment of exposure

Assessment of outcome

Statistical test


Anderson [47]

A

A

B

C

A

C

A

6

Austrom [58]

B

A

A

B

–

C

A

6

Baker [56]

A

A

A

C

–

C

B

4

Baker [59]

A

A

A

B

–

C

B

5

Baker and Hishinuma [74]

B

A

B

B

A/B

C

A

7

Batchelor [22]

C

B

B

B

–

C

B

2

Biellauskas [75]

B

B

C

A

A/B

C

A

6

Brett [51]

B

B

B

B

–

A

A

5

Burke [76]

C

A

C

B

–

C

B

3

Chambers [69]

A

A

A

A

–

C

A

6

Crowson, [6]

A

A

A

A

A

B

–

7

Davidson [77]

A

A

A

C

–

C

A

5

Davidson [52]

A

A

C

B

A

C

A

6

Deitch [48]

A

A

A

B

A/B

C

A

8

De Santo [78]

A

A

B

B

–

C

B

4

Dodds [46]

A

A

A

A

A/B

C

A

9

Donner [79]

D

C

C

C

–

D

B

0

Draper [40]

A

A

A

B

A

C

A

7

Draper [80]

A

A

B

A

A/B

C

A

8

Eagles [30]

A

A

B

B

A

C

B

5

Evans and Ghosh [43]

A

B

B

A

–

C

A

5

Farley [39]

A

A

B

A

–

C

B

4

Fletcher and Schofield [38]

A

A

C

A

A/B

C

A

8

Florence [81]

A

A

B

B

–

C

B

4

French [36]

A

A

A

A

A

C

A

8

French [23]

A

A

A

A

A

C

A

8

Gee [82]

A

A

B

B

–

C

A

5

Goldberg [57]

A

A

B

A

–

C

A

6

Grauer and Campbell [50]

D

B

C

B

–

C

B

2

Greenfield and Proctor [83]

A

A

B

B

A

C

B

5

Gregory and Menser [63]

B

A

B

A

A

C

A

7

Grondin [61]

A

A

B

A

–

C

A

6

Hall [5]

A

A

B

B

–

C

B

4

Heponiemi [44]

A

A

B

A

A/B

C

A

8

Hill [24]

C

A

C

B

–

C

B

3

Jacobson and Eran [25]

A

A

B

A

A/B

C

A

8

Jonasson and Kwakwa [84]

A

A

B

B

A

C

B

5

Joyce [42]

A

A

A

C

A

C

B

8

Kendell and Pearce [85]

A

A

B

C

–

C

B

3

Landon [49]

B

A

A

B

A/B

C

A

8

Lee [77]

A

A

A

B

–

C

B

5

Lee [87]

B

A

B

B

–

C

A

5

Luce [7]

A

A

B

A

–

C

A

6

Moriarty [88]

A

B

B

B

A/B

C

B

5

McGuirt and McGuirt [89]

B

A

B

B

–

C

B

4

Mears [41]

A

A

B

B

A

C

A

6

Meghea and Sunshine [54]

A

A

A

B

A/B

C

A

8

Newton [26]

C

A

B

A

–

C

B

4

Onyura [19]

B

A

C

B

–

C

B

4

Orkin [34]

A

A

B

B

A/B

C

A

7

Peisah [45]

C

A

C

A

–

C

B

4

Pit and Hansen [16]

B

A

B

A

A/B

C

A

8

Quandango [27]

C

A

B

B

–

C

B

3

Rayburn [31]

A

A

B

B

–

B

B

5

Reuben and Silliman [47]

A

A

A

B

A/B

C

A

8

Ritternhouse [33]

A

A

A

B

A/B

B

A

9

Rowe [90]

A

A

B

C

–

C

B

3

Shanafelt [53]

A

A

A

A

A/B

C

A

9

Sibbald [32]

A

A

A

A

A/B

A

A

9

Silver [29]

B

A

B

B

–

C

B

4

Smith [91]

A

A

C

A

–

C

B

5

Sutinen [35]

A

A

A

A

A/B

C

A

8

Van Greuningen [17]

A

A

B

A

–

C

A

7

Wakeford [18]

A

A

C

B

–

C

B

4

 “–”, not reported.
 Wells, G.A.; Shea, B.; O’Connell, D.; Peterson, J.; Welch, V.; Losos, M.; Tugwell, P. The NewcastleOttawa Scale (NOS) for assessing the quality of nonrandomized studies in metaanalyses. Available online: http://www.ohri.ca/programs/clinical_epidemiology/oxford.asp
 ^{a}Selection (5 points in total): (1) Representativeness of the sample: A, truly representative of the average in the target population (1 point); B, somewhat representative of the average in the target population (1 point); C, selected group of users (no points); D, no description of the sampling strategy (no points). (2) Sample size: A, justified and satisfactory (1 point); B, not justified (no points). (3) Nonrespondents: A, comparability between respondents and nonrespondents characteristics is established, and the response rate is satisfactory (1 point); B, the response rate is unsatisfactory, or the comparability between respondents and nonrespondents is unsatisfactory (no points); C, no description of the response rate or the characteristics of the responders and the nonresponders (no points). (4) Ascertainment of the exposure: A, validated measurement tool (2 points); B, nonvalidated measurement tool, but the tool is available or described (1 point); C, no description of the measurement tool (no points).
 ^{b}Comparability (2 points in total): (1) Confounding factors are controlled: A, the study controls for the most important factor (1 point); B, the study control for any additional factor (1 point).
 ^{c} Outcome (3 points in total): (1) Assessment of the outcome: A, independent blind assessment (2 points); B, record linkage (2 points); C, selfreport (1 point); D, no description (no points). (2) Statistical test: A, the statistical test used to analyze the data is clearly described and appropriate, and the measurement of the association is presented, including confidence intervals and the probability level (P value) (1 point); B, the statistical test is not appropriate, not described or incomplete (no points).