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Table 3 Summary of methodological quality of included studies

From: The impact of the advanced practice nursing role on quality of care, clinical outcomes, patient satisfaction, and cost in the emergency and critical care settings: a systematic review

Methodological quality of the randomized controlled trials  
  Was true randomization used for assignment of participants to treatment groups? Were treatment groups similar at the baseline? Were outcomes assessors blind to treatment assignment? Were treatments groups treated identically other than the intervention of interest? Was follow-up complete, and if not, were strategies to address incomplete follow-up utilized? Were participants analyzed in the groups to which they were randomized? Were outcomes measured in the same way for treatment groups? Were outcomes measured in a reliable way? Was appropriate statistical analysis used? Was the trial design appropriate, and any deviations from the standard RCT design accounted for in the conduct and analysis of the trial? Quality
 Dinh [30] + + + + + ? + + Medium
 Goldie [31] ? + + + + + + + Medium
 Jennings [29] + + + + + + + + + + High
Methodological quality of the cohort studies  
  Were the groups similar and recruited from the same population? Were the exposures measured similarly to assign people to both exposed and unexposed groups? Were confounding factors identified? Were strategies to deal with confounding factors stated? Were the outcomes measured in a valid and reliable way? Was follow-up complete, and if not, were the reasons to loss to follow-up described and explored? Were strategies to address incomplete follow-up utilized? Was appropriate statistical analysis used? Quality
 Colligan [33] + + + + + N.A. + High
 David [35] + + + + + Medium
 Hiza [36] ? + + + + ? ? + Medium
 Hoffman [37] + + + ? ? + Medium
 Jennings [28] + + + + ? ? + Medium
 Landsperger [38] + + + + + N.A. + High
 Moran [39] + + + + ? ? + Medium
 Morris [40] + + + + + N.A. + High
 Roche [42] + + + + ? ? + Medium
 Scherzer [41] + + + ? ? + Medium
 Skinner [34] + + + ? ? + Medium
 Steiner [32] ? + + + + + Medium
  1. + yes; − no; ? unsure