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Table 4 Summary of study results and statistical conclusions by outcome

From: The impact of the advanced practice nursing role on quality of care, clinical outcomes, patient satisfaction, and cost in the emergency and critical care settings: a systematic review

Study Setting Length of stay Waiting time Mortality Patient satisfaction Cost
Time to consultation Time to treatment
NP-directed care (NP only)
 Colligan [33] ED     
 Dinh [30] ED     
 Goldie [31] Post-cardiac surgery unit     
 Jennings [28] ED     
 Jennings [29] ED      
 Landsperger [38] ICU ↓(ICU)
 Moran [39] Stroke center     
 Morris [40] Trauma center      
 Roche [42] ED    
Collaborative care (NP + Physician)
 David [35] ICU      
 Hiza [36] Trauma center     
 Hoffman [37] ICU     
 Scherzer [41] ICU ↑(ICU)
 Skinner [34] ICU     
 Steiner [32] ED     
  1. ↑significant increase; ↔ no significant difference; ↓significant decrease