Skip to main content

Table 1 Task sharing country profiles: non-physician clinicians involved in task sharing or surgical and anesthesia procedures

From: Bridging the human resource gap in surgical and anesthesia care in low-resource countries: a review of the task sharing literature

Country Author Cadre name Preservice training Specialized training Surgical roles/procedures Regulation system Geographic location
Eastern Africa
 Kenya Kakande et al. [6] Clinical officer 3-year diploma in clinical medicine + 1-year internship 1–1.5-year higher diploma course Ear, nose, and throat; ophthalmology, anesthesia, orthopedics, minor surgery (e.g., circumcision) Training and practice regulated by the clinical officers council, act of parliament in place to define roles Mainly rural
 Tanzania Pereira et al. Beard et al.; McCord et al. [3, 12] Assistant medical officer 3-year training in clinical medicine + 1-year internship 2-year training for advanced diploma Emergency obstetric surgery, anesthesia, hernia, abdominal surgery including laparotomy, hydrocelectomy, prostatectomy Diploma award, accreditation and registration by Tanganyika Medical Council Urban, rural
 Sudan Kakande et al. [6] Clinical officer 3-year clinical training   Minor surgery, emergency obstetric surgery, anesthesia   
 Uganda Paul et al.; Galukande et al. [17, 19] Clinical officer 3-year diploma in clinical medicine + 1-year internship 1–1.5-year higher diploma course Orthopedics, anesthesia   
 Ethiopia Gessessew et al. [35] Integrated emergency surgical officer 3–4-year training in clinical medicine, public health, healthcare management 6–9-month training in emergency obstetric care Emergency obstetric surgery, laparotomy, uterine evacuation, hysterectomy, ophthalmology, anesthesia   
 Burundi McAuliffe et al. [10] Nurse anesthetist   2-year training program    
 Djibouti McAuliffe et al. [10] Nurse anesthetist [7]      
 Malawi Wilhelm et al.; Mkandawire et al.; Tyson et al. [4, 25, 30] Clinical officer 2-year training and 4-year clinical experience as medical assistant 18-month formal training in surgery Orthopedic, ophthalmology, emergency obstetric surgery, laparotomy Registration by the Malawi Medical Council, Urban, rural
 Mozambique Kruk et al.; Cumbi et al. [18, 22] Surgical technicians
Anesthesia technicians
2-year training in clinical medicine as an assistant medical officer + 2–3-year clinical experience 2-year surgical training + 1-year internship for a specialized diploma Emergency obstetric surgery, orthopedic, general surgery including craniotomy, bowel resection, colostomy, anesthesia Accreditation by Ministry of Health Mainly rural
 Zambia Kakande et al. [6] Medical licentiates 3-year training as clinical officer + 2-year clinical experience 3-year training for a bachelor’s degree in surgery Anesthesia, orthopedics, emergency obstetric care Accredited by University of Zambia
Regulated by Medical Council of Zambia
Mainly rural
Central Africa
 Cameroon McAuliffe et al. [10] Nurse anesthetist 3-year training as registered nurse + 2-year pf experience as intensive care unit nurse 2-year anesthesia training program    
 Chad, Angola McAuliffe et al. [10] Nurse anesthetist      
West Africa
 Guinea-Bissau Mullan et al. [8] Clinical officer 3-year training N/A Minor surgery, anesthesia   Mainly rural
 Ghana Mullan et al. [8] Medical assistant 3-year training + 1-year internship   Minor surgery, emergency obstetric surgery, anesthesia   Mainly rural
 Togo Mullan et al. [8] Medical assistant    Minor surgery, ophthalmology   
 Senegal Mullan et al. [8] Health officer 2-year clinical training + 6-month internship   Minor surgery, anesthesia   
 Sierra Leone Mullan et al. [8] Community health officer
Nurse anesthetist
3-year training in community health sciences to earn a higher national diploma in community health sciences Trainees receive 6 months of surgical training at a central hospital then 6-month rotation to a partner hospital Cesarean section, laparotomy, hernia repair, hydrocelectomy, appendectomy, tubal ligation, anesthesia   
 Burkina Faso Hounton et al. [20] Clinical officer 3-year training in clinical medicine and surgery None Minor surgery, Cesarean section, ophthalmology   Rural, urban
 Côte d’Ivoire McAuliffe et al. [10] Nurse anesthetist   2-year training program    
 Gabon Mullan et al. [8]
McAuliffe et al. [10]
Nurse anesthetist Registered nurse with 2-year clinical experience 2-year training program    
 Nigeria, Mali, Benin McAuliffe et al. [10] Nurse anesthetist      
Southern Africa
 Botswana, Swaziland, Lesotho, Zimbabwe McAuliffe et al. [10] Nurse anesthetist      
Central America
 Haiti Rosseel et al. [26] Certified nurse 2-year training as a nurse 15–18-month program offered by Medicines San Frontieres (1998–2003) and Partners in Health (2007–) General anesthesia, spinal anesthesia   
Asia
 Bhutan Mavalankar et al. [13] Nurse anesthetist 2-year training as clinical nurse 14-month training combined in Bhutan and Bangkok General anesthesia, spinal anesthesia   
 Afghanistan Mavalankar et al. [13] Nurse anesthetist 2-year training as clinical nurse 1 year of training in anesthesia General anesthesia   
 Nepal Mavalankar et al. [11] Anesthesia assistant 6-month training None General anesthesia   
 Cambodia, Laos Mavalankar et al. [11]
McAuliffe et al. [12]
Nurse anesthetist   2-year training    
 Philippines, Indonesia, Vietnam, Myanmar, India McAuliffe et al. [10]
Mavalankar et al. [11]
Nurse anesthetist