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Table 7 Overview of overall findings of systematic reviews on HRM and performance

From: The effect of human resource management on performance in hospitals in Sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic literature review

Author (year) Aim of review No. Setting HRM practices Summary of findings
This review To present a systematic review of empirical studies investigating the relationship between HRM and performance in SSA hospitals. 111 Saharan Africa Hospitals 18 HR practices:
-Training and education
-Task delegation/task shifting
-Compensation, salary, incentives
-Promotion/recognition
-Scheduling and rostering
-Management/leadership support
-Team work
-Performance appraisal
-Feedback/communication
-Staffing
-Selection/recruitment
-Mentorship
-Employee engagement
-WLB
-Job autonomy
-Job security/safety
-Written job description
HRM practices in SSA are linked to all categories of performance outcomes: individual employee outcomes (task performance, job satisfaction, motivation, retention, reduction in workload and moonlighting); team outcomes, organizational performance outcomes (quality of care, patient safety, timeliness, service efficiency, staff shortage) and patient outcomes (patient experience and clinical outcomes).
Hyde et al. (2006) To investigate how HRM can influence performance in organizations by addressing the question “How can HRM help NHS organizations to achieve their goals?” 97 European Hospitals 10 HRM practices:
-Training
-Pay
-Involvement
-Selection
-Team working
-Performance appraisal
-Job security
-Job design
-Equal opportunities
-Career development
Bundles of practices are more likely to positively affect performance than single practices. There is insufficient evidence that a specific HRM practice is superior in increasing performance. Local and wider external contextual factors need to be taken into account when doing research in health sector.
Boselie et al. (2005) To see whether there might be commonalities and widely accepted trends in the theoretical perspectives, conceptualizations and methodologies used in the field of HRM and performance research. 104 European (Dutch) hospitals 26 HR practices:
-Training
-Contingent pay and rewards,
-Performance management
-Recruitment
-Team working
-Direct participation
-Good wages
-Communication
-Internal promotion
-Job design
-Autonomy
-Employment security
-Benefits
-Formal procedures
-HR planning
-Financial participation
-Symbolic egalitarianism
-Attitude survey
-Indirect participation
-Diversity and equal opportunities
-Job analysis
-Socialization
-Family-friendly policies
-Exit management
-Effectiveness of HR function
-Social responsibility practices
The relationship between (some form of) HRM intervention and (some indicator of) performance is mediated by linking mechanisms.
Combs et al. (2006) To identify and analyze studies that investigate the relationship between at least one HPWP and organizational performance. 92 Manufacturing and service organizations 13 HRM practices within HPWP:
-Incentive compensation
-Training
-Compensation level
-Participation
-Selectivity
-Internal promotion
-HR planning
-Flexible work
-Performance appraisal
-Grievance procedures
-Teams
-Information sharing
-Employment security
HPWPs have a higher impact than individual practices on organizational performance (focused on operational and financial performance outcomes).
Dieleman et al. (2009) to explore if realist review of published primary research provides better insight into the functioning of HRM interventions 48 Low- and middle-income countries 6 HRM practices:
-Continuing education
-Supervision
-Payment of incentives
-Decentralization of HRM functions
-Regulation
-Combination of HR practice such as training
HRM interventions can improve health workers’ performance. Mechanisms such as increased knowledge and skills, feeling obliged to change and health workers’ motivation caused change.
Continuing education is likely to be effective in short term. Combined interventions are more likely to be effective in the long term.
Thereby, context should be taken into account.