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Table 2 Summary of scoping review findings

From: Community boundary spanners as an addition to the health workforce to reach marginalised people: a scoping review of the literature

First author and year Health context Population group Boundary spanning type Paid or unpaid Purpose of boundary spanning Activities Outcome domains
Individual Boundary spanner Organisation Community
Aoun (2013) [61] Weight loss Rural middle aged to older men Peer Unpaid Change in health behaviours and outcomes Workshop/information sessions; individual provision of health advice/coaching  
Bailey (2015) [53] General healthy lifestyle interventions Prisoners and people with mental illness Lay Paid Change in health behaviours and outcomes Workshop/information sessions; individual provision of health advice/coaching; referrals to other organisations   
Barlow (2011) [54] Perinatal/maternal health Socio-eco deprived families Peer Paid and unpaid Addressing organisational trust problem Individual provision of health advice/coaching; home visits/phone calls; emotional/practical support; referrals to other organisations  
Bustillos (2015) [38] Nutrition Disadvantaged and hard to reach CHW Paid Addressing organisational trust problem Workshop/information sessions; individual provision of health advice/coaching   
Choi (2016) [39] Cancer screening or care Ethnic minority CHW Unstated Increase participation rates in clinical services Workshop/information sessions; home visits/phone calls; service navigation   
Doolan-Noble (2013) [62] Chronic care Rural with complex and chronic conditions Navigator Paid Solution to workforce shortage Home visits/phone calls; emotional and practical support; referrals to other organisations; patient follow up and documentation    
Felix (2011) [45] Mild to moderate functional limitations Long-term care needs: age and disability CHW Paid Increase participation rates in clinical services Home visits/phone calls; referrals to other organisations; service navigation    
Gampa (2017) [46] Community health Indigenous communities CHW Paid Solution to workforce shortage Individual provision of health advice/coaching; home visits/phone calls; emotional and practical support; referrals to other organisations; cultural brokering; case management; health service provision     
Han (2007) [47] Chronic care Older migrants CHW Unpaid Change in health behaviours and outcomes Workshop/information sessions    
Hartman (2013) [60] Exercise program Ethnic minority mothers Community entities Paid Change in health behaviours and outcomes Workshop/information sessions; cultural brokering    
Hesselink (2011) [27] Perinatal/maternal health Ethnic minority women CHW Paid Change in health behaviours and outcomes Workshop/information sessions; individual provision of health advice/coaching; cultural brokering; health service provision    
Kennedy (2010) [55] Nutrition Less affluent neighbourhood Lay Paid and unpaid Change in health behaviours and outcomes Workshop/information sessions; individual provision of health advice/coaching; emotional and practical support
Levinson (2015) [48] Smoking cessation Socio-eco disadvantaged Lay Paid Increase participation rates in clinical services Individual provision of health advice/coaching; home visits and phone calls; referrals to other organisations; patient follow up and documentation     
Margellos-Anast (2012) [49] Chronic care Poor inner-city communities CHW Paid Increase participation rates in clinical services Individual provision of health advice/coaching; referrals to other organisations; case management.    
May (2007) [65] Community health Immigrants CHW Paid and unpaid Solution to workforce shortage Workshop/information sessions; individual provision of health advice/coaching; home visits/phone calls; emotional and practical support; referrals to other organisations
McLeish (2015) [56] Perinatal/maternal health Vulnerable mothers Peer Unpaid Addressing organisational trust problem Workshop/information sessions; individual provision of health advice/coaching; emotional and practical support; service navigation   
Najafizada (2015) [63] Community health Marginalised people CHW Paid and unpaid Increase participation rates in clinical services Workshop/information sessions; individual provision of health advice/coaching; health service provision  
Otiniano (2012) [50] Community health Hard to reach communities CHW Stipend for the workshop Addressing organisational trust problem Workshop/information sessions; community-based research     
Palmas (2014) [51] Chronic care Hispanic adults CHW Paid Change in health behaviours and outcomes Individual provision of health advice/coaching; home visits/ phone calls; emotional and practical support    
Palomino (2017) [52] Cancer screening or care Ethnic minorities- rural Navigator Paid Increase participation rates in clinical services Service navigation; cultural brokering.    
Rafie (2015) [40] Cancer screening or care African-American Lay Unpaid Increase participation rates in clinical services Workshop/information sessions   
Raj (2012) [41] Cancer screening or care Racially and ethnically diverse Navigator Paid Increase participation rates in clinical services Home visits/phone calls; service navigation; patient follow up and documentation    
Rohan (2016) [42] Cancer screening or care Medically disadvantaged Navigator Paid Increase participation rates in clinical services Home visits/phone calls; emotional and practical support; service navigation; patient follow up and documentation    
Shahidi (2015) [43] Community health Inner city neighbourhood “forgotten” CHW Paid Addressing organisational trust problem Workshop/information sessions; home visits/phone calls; emotional and practical support; service navigation; case management; health service provision    
Sokol (2016) [64] General healthy lifestyle interventions Hardly reached Peer Paid and unpaid Addressing organisational trust problem Home visits/phone calls; emotional and practical support; service navigation; referrals to other organisations    
Thomson (2012) [57] Perinatal/maternal health Mothers in a deprived area Peer Paid and unpaid Addressing organisational trust problem Workshop/information sessions; home visits/phone calls; emotional and practical support   
Torres (2014) [67] Perinatal/maternal health New immigrants and refugees CHW Paid Solution to workforce shortage Workshop/information sessions; individual provision of health advice/coaching; home visits/phone calls; emotional and practical support; referrals to other organisations; cultural brokering; case management    
Wagoner (2015) [44] Sexual health Ethnic minority men- Latino Peer Unpaid Change in health behaviours and outcomes Workshop/information sessions; individual provision of health advice/coaching; emotional and practical support; referrals to other organisations  
White (2015) [58] Mental health High deprivation areas Lay Paid Change in health behaviours and outcomes Individual provision of health advice/coaching    
Woodall (2013) [59] Community health Disadvantaged communities Lay Unpaid Change in health behaviours and outcomes Workshop/information sessions; individual provision of health advice/coaching; emotional and practical support