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Table 1 Descriptive statistics for rural Chinese counties, 2008–2014

From: The impact of the health care workforce on under-five mortality in rural China

Variables National Poverty status Trajectory of GDP per capita6
2008 2010 2012 2014    Poor Non-poor   Low level and slowly rising Medium level and moderately rising High level and rapidly rising  
Mean (SD) Mean (SD) Mean (SD) Mean (SD) Absolute change2 % Change3 Mean (SD) Absolute change2 Mean (SD) Absolute change2 Difference4 Mean (SD) Absolute change2 Mean (SD) Absolute change2 Mean (SD) Absolute change2 Difference5
Under-five mortality rate1 (/1000 live births) 23.97 (15.18) 20.50 (12.71) 17.13 (9.52) 15.29 (10.86) − 8.66 − 36.19 25.70 (16.40) − 12.68 15.11 (7.03) − 6.03 10.58 25.81 (16.51) − 12.72 15.37 (7.08) − 6.03 12.96 (7.55) − 7.26 10.44
Total HP in county (/1000 population) 2.83 (1.47) 3.19 (1.52) 3.53 (1.71) 3.95 (1.83) 1.14 39.66 2.94 (1.45) 0.98 3.65 (1.77) 1.24 − 0.71 2.89 (1.39) 0.98 3.51 (1.64) 1.20 5.81 (2.28) 1.75 − 0.62
GDP per capita (log, ¥) 9.46 (0.68) 9.78 (0.67) 10.11 (0.65) 10.28 (0.62) 0.82 8.62 9.43 (0.58) 0.88 10.21 (0.64) 0.78 − 0.78 9.40 (0.54) 0.88 10.13 (0.56) 0.78 11.45 (0.48) 0.79 − 0.73
Female illiteracy rate (%) 15.08 (11.57) 10.68 (9.88) 9.65 (7.77) 10.38 (9.69) − 4.67 − 31.19 16.34 (13.54) − 6.02 8.36 (4.90) − 3.78 7.98 16.45 (13.65) − 6.07 8.43 (4.93) − 3.70 8.18 (5.13) − 4.91 8.02
Provincial ratio of health expenditure to GDP (%) 4.55 (1.36) 5.21 (1.39) 5.46 (1.25) 5.92 (1.28) 1.37 30.08 5.95 (1.40) 1.53 4.86 (1.25) 1.28 1.09 5.95 (1.39) 1.54 4.93 (1.26) 1.28 4.07 (1.04) 1.15 1.01
Value of equipment per bed (log, ¥) 10.24 (0.83) 10.48 (0.66) 10.73 (0.59) 11.01 (0.61) 0.76 7.51 10.38 (0.81) 0.95 10.76 (0.64) 0.64 − 0.39 10.38 (0.81) 0.94 10.73 (0.64) 0.66 11.20 (0.62) 0.62 − 0.35
  1. Numbers in parentheses are standard deviations
  2. HP health professionals, GDP gross domestic product
  3. 1Adjusted under-five mortality rate [40]
  4. 2Difference between year 2008 and 2014, p < 0.001 for all variables, from paired t-test
  5. 3Percent of change from 2008 to 2014
  6. 4Difference between poor counties and non-poor counties, p < 0.001, from t-test for two independent samples
  7. 5Difference between counties with low-level and slowly rising GDP per capita and counties with medium-level and moderately rising GDP per capita, p < 0.001, from t test for two independent samples
  8. 6One-way analysis of variance for the three groups based on trajectory of GDP per capita shows that not all groups are equivalent (p < 0.001). Multiple-comparison tests show that all variables are distinct in each group except the female illiteracy rate between counties with high-level and rapidly rising GDP per capita and counties with medium-level and moderately rising GDP per capita