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Table 2 Models for the association between the density of health professionals and the under-five mortality rate in rural China, 2008–2014

From: The impact of the health care workforce on under-five mortality in rural China

Variables (1) (2) (3)
Full model Interaction with poverty status Interaction with GDP trajectory
Total number of health professionals − 0.026** − 0.011 − 0.007
0.007 0.007 0.007
Poverty status (non-poor group as the reference)
 Total HP # poor   − 0.057**  
  0.014  
Trajectory of GDP per capita (medium group as the reference)
 Total HP # slowly rising    − 0.060**
   0.014
 Total HP # rapidly rising    − 0.036+
   0.021
GDP per capita (log) − 0.099** − 0.080** − 0.082**
0.026 0.026 0.026
Female illiteracy rate 0.004* 0.003 0.003
0.002 0.002 0.002
Provincial health expenditures/GDP (high group as the reference) 0.051** 0.047** 0.048**
0.015 0.015 0.015
Value of equipment per bed (log) − 0.017+ − 0.012 − 0.013
0.009 0.009 0.008
Number of observations 7 653 7 653 7 653
Adjusted R2 (within group) 0.423 0.427 0.427
  1. HP health professionals, GDP gross domestic product
  2. Numbers in the cells are fixed effects estimators with their standard errors underneath
  3. +p < 0.1; *p < 0.05; **p < 0.01
  4. All models include fixed effects for years and intercepts, but these values are not shown in the table