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Table 3 Association between demographics and experiences with stated likelihood of working in a rural area in the future

From: Assessment of interventions to attract and retain health workers in rural Zambia: a discrete choice experiment

Characteristic Likely or very likely to work in rural area
n (%)1
Unlikely or very unlikely to work in rural area
n (%)1
Odds ratio (p value)2
Gender
 Female 167 (73.6) 60 (26.4) 1.22 (0.36)
 Male 180 (77.3) 53 (22.8) ref.
Age
 29 years or younger 212 (76.3) 66 (23.7) 1.14 (0.57)
 30 years or older 133 (73.9) 47 (26.1) ref.
Marital status
 Single or divorced 183 (80.3) 45 (19.7) 1.65 (0.02)
 Married or engaged 163 (71.2) 66 (28.8) ref.
Dependents
 No children 139 (78.5) 38 (21.5) 1.31 (0.24)
 Has children 204 (73.7) 73 (26.4) ref.
Health worker status
 Student 170 (82.5) 36 (17.5) 2.04 (< 0.01)
 Active health worker 178 (69.8) 77 (30.2) ref.
Years practicing as a health worker
 None or less than 1 year 178 (80.2) 44 (19.8) 1.67 (0.02)
 More than 1 year 165 (70.8) 68 (29.2) ref.
Years practicing as a health worker in rural areas
 None or less than 1 year 188 (79.0) 50 (21.0) 1.53 (0.05)
 More than 1 year 152 (71.0) 62 (29.0) ref.
Bonding agreement or other rural obligation
 Has bonding agreement or other obligation 56 (84.9) 10 (15.2) 2.04 (0.05)
 No bonding agreement or other obligation 280 (73.3) 102 (26.7) ref.
Rating of experience working in rural area
 Excellent 55 (90.2) 6 (9.8) 12.38 (< 0.01)
 Good 118 (81.4) 27 (18.6) 5.90 (< 0.01)
 Fair 117 (74.1) 41 (26.0) 3.85 (< 0.01)
 Poor 20 (42.6) 27 (57.5) ref.
Health worker cadre
 Environmental health officer 52 (58.4) 37 (41.6) ref.
 Nurse 198 (79.2) 52 (20.8) 2.71 (< 0.01)
 Midwife 41 (83.7) 2 (16.3) 3.64 (< 0.01)
 Clinical officer 35 (85.4) 6 (14.6) 4.15 (< 0.01)
 Medical doctor 12 (66.7) 6 (33.3) 1.42 (0.52)
  1. 1Percentages are row percentages, but may not sum to 100% due to missing data. OR denotes “odds ratios” which represents the odds that an outcome will occur given a certain exposure (or in this characteristic)
  2. 2p values and odds ratios are based on bivariate logistic regressions