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Table 2 Difference-in-differences matching regression estimates (and associated standard errors) of the effects of P4P for diabetes care on healthcare costs, by provider’s sex

From: Gendered effects of pay for performance among family physicians for chronic disease care: an economic evaluation in a context of universal health coverage

  (1) (2) (3) (4)
Physician workforce costs Hospital costs for diabetes Hospital costs for comorbid conditions All-cause healthcare costs
Baseline cohort: adult patients diagnosed with diabetes before the study period
 Female providers 0.218* (0.024) 0.049 (0.021) 0.082 (0.035) 0.265* (0.031)
 Male providers 0.152* (0.011) 0.002 (0.014) − 0.011 (0.024) 0.188* (0.018)
Newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes adult patient cohort
 Female providers 0.207* (0.059) − 0.059 (0.048) − 0.200 (0.106) 0.184 (0.094)
 Male providers 0.179* (0.042) − 0.091 (0.041) − 0.108 (0.089) 0.169 (0.074)
  1. Note: *p < 0.01. Coefficients (and robust standard errors) calculated using propensity score difference-in-differences estimation. Outcomes are log healthcare costs in inflation-adjusted Canadian dollars. Matching variables include patient’s age group, sex, urban/rural residence, comorbid conditions (hypertension, ischemic heart disease), and physician practice variables (remuneration model, practice size). Baseline cohort includes adults aged 35 and over diagnosed with diabetes before the period of observation (N = 42 896). Newly diagnosed cohort includes adults 35 and over diagnosed with diabetes in the year before the introduction of the P4P scheme (N = 6656). Models are split by the sex of the patient’s most responsible provider
  2. Source: Linked provincial administrative health datasets