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Table 4 Coefficients (and associated standard errors) from the propensity-score adjusted difference-in-differences regressions for the effects of pay for performance on healthcare costs among adults diagnosed with diabetes in the year before the introduction of the P4P scheme (newly diagnosed cohort), by provider’s sex

From: Gendered effects of pay for performance among family physicians for chronic disease care: an economic evaluation in a context of universal health coverage

  (1) (2) (3) (4)
Physician workforce costs Hospital costs for diabetes Hospital costs for comorbid conditions All-cause healthcare costs
Exposed group Control group Exposed group Control group Exposed group Control group Exposed group Control group
1. Female providers
 Pre-P4P 6.166 6.171 0.145 0.106 0.464 0.423 6.385 6.488
 Difference − 0.005 (0.048) 0.039 (0.041) 0.041 (0.076) − 0.103 (0.084)
 Post-P4P 6.249 6.046 0.030 0.050 0.223 0.383 6.426 6.345
 Difference 0.203** (0.040) − 0.020 (0.025) − 0.159* (0.069) 0.081 (0.057)
 Diff-in-diff 0.207** (0.059) − 0.059 (0.048) − 0.200 (0.106) 0.184* (0.094)
2. Male providers
 Pre-P4P 6.089 6.107 0.163 0.123 0.478 0.582 6.331 6.458
 Difference − 0.019 (0.042) 0.040 (0.036) − 0.104 (0.074) − 0.127* (0.063)
 Post-P4P 6.207 6.046 0.054 0.105 0.267 0.479 6.387 6.344
 Difference 0.161** (0.026) −0.051* (0.020) − 0.212** (0.051) 0.042 (0.038)
 Diff-in-diff 0.179** (0.042) − 0.091* (0.041) − 0.108 (0.089) 0.169* (0.074)
  1. Note: **p < 0.01, *p < 0.05. Coefficients (with a bootstrap estimation of robust standard errors in parentheses) calculated using propensity score difference-in-differences estimation. Outcomes are log healthcare costs in inflation-adjusted Canadian dollars. Matching variables include patient’s age group, sex, urban/rural residence, comorbid conditions (hypertension, ischemic heart disease), and physician practice variables (remuneration model, practice size). Newly diagnosed cohort includes adults 35 and over diagnosed with diabetes in the year before the introduction of the P4P scheme (N = 6 656). Models are split by the sex of the patient’s most responsible provider
  2. Source: Linked provincial administrative health datasets