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Table 2 CHW typology in the six study countries by type of organisation and mode of engagement

From: Salaried and voluntary community health workers: exploring how incentives and expectation gaps influence motivation

Mode of engagement Country: CHW type Incentives
Financial incentives, as agreed Material incentives, as agreed
Per month (2014 USD equivalent), as agreed % of starting salary enrolled nurse, per month (2014 USD equivalent)  
Contracted staff, with salary Government (MoH)    
Bangladesh: FWAs USD98 48% (USD206)  
Ethiopia: HEWs USD46 74% (USD62) Sometimes: airtime
Malawi: HSAs USD100 13% (USD778) Sometimes: bicycles, t-shirts, airtime, uniform
Bangladesh: Shasthya kormis (SK) USD39 NA  
Volunteers, with some form of financial incentive
Note: time inputs vary across countries/cadres
Government (MoH)    
Indonesia: kader Allowance: USD5 (but variable) 3% (USD200) Uniform/t-shirt
Kenya: CHWs Allowance: USD23 10% (USD226) Sometimes: bicycles
Mozambique: APEs Allowance:
33% (USD120) Uniform
Sometimes: bicycles, airtime
Bangladesh: Shasthya shebikas (SS)
Performance-based incentives: varies; selling commodities: varies (average around USD3 per month) NA  
  1. APE Agentes polivalentes elementares (elementary multipurpose agents), CHW community health worker, FWA family welfare assistant, HEW health extension worker, HSA health surveillance assistant, kader volunteer CHW, MoH Ministry of Health, NA not available, NGO non-governmental organisation, SK health workers, SS health volunteers, USD United States dollars