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Table 4 Practice intentions among FM residents exiting programs in 2016 and 2017, unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for sex/gender and parenthood

From: The relationship between gender, parenthood and practice intentions among family medicine residents: cross-sectional analysis of national Canadian survey data

FMLS question (question number, response count) Sex/gender and parenthood Unadjusted odds Adjusted odds
  Reference category male, non-parent
Will commit to providing comprehensive care to the same group of patients in first 3 years of practice (Q17, N = 1 607) Male, parent 2.12 (1.42–3.16) 1.64 (1.03–2.60)
Female, non-parent 1.27 (1.00–1.62) 1.17 (0.891.52)
Female, parent 2.21 (1.51–3.23) 1.77 (1.13–2.77)
Agree with the statement: “I am confident in my current ability to provide comprehensive care to the same group of patients over time.” (Q19, N = 1 611) Male, parent 0.87 (0.46–1.64) 0.86 (0.421.79)
Female, non-parent 1.12 (0.72–1.76) 1.13 (0.711.79)
Female, parent 1.12 (0.59–2.15) 1.16 (0.562.42)
Comprehensive care delivered in one clinical setting (e.g., office-based) (Q16a, N = 1 612) Male, parent 0.87 (0.61–1.24) 0.71 (0.471.06)
Female, non-parent 1.21 (0.96–1.55) 1.34 (1.04–1.71)
Female, parent 1.90 (1.32–2.72)* 1.53 (1.02–2.29)
Comprehensive care provided across multiple clinical settings (e.g., in-hospital, long-term care, office) (Q16b, 1 614) Male, parent 0.83 (0.56–1.24) 0.70 (0.451.10)
Female, non-parent 1.17 (0.89–1.54) 1.10 (0.831.47)
Female, parent 0.73 (0.51–1.06) 0.69 (0.451.05)
Comprehensive care that includes a special interest (e.g., sports medicine, emergency medicine, palliative care, etc.) (Q16c, N = 1 614) Male, parent 0.97 (0.66–1.42) 0.99 (0.651.50)
Female, non-parent 0.97 (0.75–1.24) 0.94 (0.731.21)
Female, parent 0.79 (0.55–1.12) 0.82 (0.551.21)
Practice focused on specific clinical areas (e.g., sports medicine, maternity care, emergency medicine, palliative care, hospital medicine) (Q16d, N = 1 611) Male, parent 0.64 (0.44–0.94) 0.72 (0.471.11)
Female, non-parent 0.75 (0.59–0.96) 0.72 (0.56–0.92)
Female, parent 0.47 (0.32–0.69) 0.52 (0.34–0.80)
Solo practice (Q15a, N = 1 600) Male, parent 0.99 (0.53–1.85) 0.93 (0.451.91)
Female, non-parent 0.77 (0.50–1.18) 0.84 (0.531.31)
Female, parent 0.65 (0.33–1.27) 0.60 (0.281.28)*
Group physician practice (Q15b, N = 1 612) Male, parent 1.56 (0.79–3.11) 1.80 (0.823.95)
Female, non-parent 2.75 (1.69–4.46) 2.75 (1.67–4.53)
Female, parent 2.30 (1.10–4.83) 2.81 (1.23–6.42)
Interprofessional team-based practice (Q15c, N = 1 609) Male, parent 1.04 (0.65–1.66) 1.03 (0.601.77)
Female, non-parent 3.19 (2.18–4.66) 3.00 (2.03–4.42)
Female, parent 1.06 (0.68–1.64)* 1.05 (0.621.76)*
Practice that includes teaching health profession learners (Q15d, N = 1 606) Male, parent 1.37 (0.87–2.16) 1.42 (0.852.38)
Female, non-parent 1.14 (0.86–1.52) 1.27 (0.951.72)
Female, parent 0.81 (0.55–1.19)* 0.88 (0.561.38)*
Care across the life cycle (Q21a, N = 1 612) Male, parent 1.27 (0.72–2.23) 1.38 (0.732.63)
Female, non-parent 1.98 (1.34–2.92) 1.95 (1.30–2.91)
Female, parent 2.17 (1.16–4.06) 2.59 (1.29–5.19)
Intrapartum care (Q21b, N = 1 608) Male, parent 2.11 (1.43–3.10) 2.20 (1.43–3.37)
Female, non-parent 2.81 (2.15–3.68) 3.05 (2.32–4.02)
Female, parent 3.61 (2.52–5.16)* 3.89 (2.60–5.82)*
Mental health care (Q21c, N = 1 608) Male, parent 1.16 (0.69–1.96) 1.32 (0.732.40)
Female, non-parent 1.81 (1.26–2.61) 1.85 (1.27–2.70)
Female, parent 1.65 (0.96–2.84) 2.09 (1.13–3.86)
Chronic disease management (Q21d, N = 1 605) Male, parent 1.07 (0.57–1.99) 1.00 (0.492.03)
Female, non-parent 1.79 (1.15–2.81) 1.93 (1.22–3.07)
Female, parent 3.33 (1.39–8.00) 3.54 (1.38–9.12)
Palliative care/end of life care (Q21e, N = 1 607) Male, parent 1.29 (0.87–1.90) 1.17 (0.751.81)
Female, non-parent 0.83 (0.65–1.06) 0.87 (0.681.13)
Female, parent 0.84 (0.60–1.20) 0.82 (0.541.22)
Office-based clinical procedures (Q21f, N = 1 603) Male, parent 1.26 (0.77–2.06) 1.13 (0.661.96)
Female, non-parent 1.25 (0.91–1.71) 1.39 (1.01–1.93)
Female, parent 1.00 (0.64–1.54) 1.00 (0.611.64)
In-hospital clinical procedures (e.g., chest tube insertion, adult lumbar puncture, nasogastric tube insertion) (Q21g, N = 1 609) Male, parent 0.83 (0.58–1.18) 0.71 (0.471.06)
Female, non-parent 0.50 (0.39–0.63) 0.49 (0.38–0.63)
Female, parent 0.35 (0.24–0.50)* 0.30 (0.20–0.44)
Emergency departments (Q21h, N = 1 610) Male, parent 1.00 (0.70–1.42) 0.82 (0.551.23)
Female, non-parent 0.47 (0.37–0.59) 0.46 (0.36–0.59)
Female, parent 0.32 (0.22–0.45) 0.26 (0.17–0.39)
In-hospital (Q21i, 1 607) Male, parent 1.08 (0.74 –1.56) 0.98 (0.651.50)
Female, non-parent 0.77 (0.61–0.99) 0.76 (0.59–0.98)
Female, parent 0.50 (0.35–0.69)* 0.49 (0.33–0.73)
Care in the home (Q21j, N = 1 609) Male, parent 1.02 (0.71–1.45) 0.86 (0.571.29)
Female, non-parent 1.02 (0.80–1.29) 1.07 (0.841.37)
Female, parent 0.93 (0.67–1.31) 0.79 (0.531.16)
Long-term care facilities (Q21k, N = 1 609) Male, parent 1.60 (1.12–2.29) 1.51 (1.00–2.25)
Female, non-parent 0.94 (0.74–1.20) 1.03 (0.801.32)
Female, parent 0.95 (0.68–1.34) 0.93 (0.631.37)*
Marginalized, disadvantaged, and vulnerable populations (Q21l, N = 1 606) Male, parent 1.22 (0.85–1.74) 1.08 (0.711.63)
Female, non-parent 1.00 (0.79–1.27) 1.19 (0.921.52)
Female, parent 0.96 (0.69–1.35) 0.89 (0.601.32)
Rural populations (Q21m, N = 1 532) Male, parent 1.27 (0.88–1.83) 0.93 (0.611.42)
Female, non-parent 0.86 (0.67–1.09) 0.84 (0.651.09)
Female, parent 0.89 (0.63–1.26) 0.65 (0.43–0.98)
Elderly populations (Q21n, N = 1 531) Male, parent 1.01 (0.56–1.84) 1.17 (0.582.37)
Female, non-parent 1.16 (0.77–1.74) 1.17 (0.751.81)
Female, parent 1.30 (0.70–2.41) 1.77 (0.843.71)
First Nations, Inuit, and Métis (Q21o, N = 1 610 Male, parent 1.26 (0.89–1.80) 1.01 (0.661.54)
Female, non-parent 0.82 (0.65–1.04) 0.98 (0.751.27)
Female, parent 0.77 (0.55–1.08) 0.67 (0.441.01)
  1. *Indicates the effect of parenthood is significantly different for male and female residents (i.e., the interaction term, or the ratio of odds ratios (female parents/female non-parents)/(male parents/male non-parents) is significantly different from 1 at p < 0.05). NOTE: odds ratios significant at p<0.05 are indicated in italics
  2. Full regression results, including odds ratios for all control variables, are presented in Appendix 2