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Table 3 Association between intensity of exposure to the ASHA program and maternity service utilization outcomes using a linear probability model

From: The impact of India’s accredited social health activist (ASHA) program on the utilization of maternity services: a nationally representative longitudinal modelling study

  M1 (crude model) M2 (M1 + other covariates) M3 (M2 + cluster fixed effects)
  N ME* (95% CI) N M (95% CI) N ME (95% CI)
Antenatal care, one visit 24 763 − 0.032 (− 0.067–0.003) 24 565 0.12 (0.094–0.156)** 24 565 0.17 (0.118–0.221)**
Antenatal care, four visits 24 777 − 0.215 (− 0.269–0.162)* 24 578 0.038 (0.011–0.088) 24 578 0.047 (− 0.016–0.111)
Skilled birth attendance 24 613 − 0.047 (− 0.091–0.003)* 24 420 0.200 (0.163–0.237)** 24 240 0.258 (0.206–0.310)**
Birth at a health facility 24 721 − 0.029 (− 0.077–0.020) 24 519 0.245 (0.204–0.286)** 24 519 0.276 (0.224–0.328)**
Estimated marginal effects (ME) are the change in predicted probabilities (95% CI) as a result of receipt of ASHA services, controlling for maternal age, maternal education, caste, religion, parity, socioeconomic status, and rurality
*p < 0.05; **p < 0.01