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Table 5 Association between cluster-level exposure to ASHA measured as “intensity of exposure” and maternity service utilization outcomes using a linear probability model with fixed effects at the cluster level

From: The impact of India’s accredited social health activist (ASHA) program on the utilization of maternity services: a nationally representative longitudinal modelling study

  ANC-1 (N = 24 565) ANC-4 (N = 24 578) SBA (N = 24 240) Facility birth (N = 24 519)
  β(95% CI) p value β(95% CI) p value β(95% CI) p value β(95% CI) p value
Outcome 0.17 (0.118–0.221) 0.000 0.047 (− 0.016–0.011) 0.146 0.258 (0.206–0.310) 0.000 0.276 0.224–0.326) 0
Maternal age (years)             
 15–19 1    1    1    1   
 20–24 − 0.012 (− 0.038–0.014) 0.362 0.012 (− 0.023–0.046) 0.503 0.003 (− 0.030–0.037) 0.848 − 0.001 (− 0.033–0.032 0.967
 25–29 − 0.009 (− 0.034–0.018) 0.527 0.010 (− 0.026–0.045) 0.591 − 0.018 (− 0.051–0.015) 0.277 − 0.028 (− 0.061–0.005) 0.091
 30–34 − 0.01 (− 0.039–0.019) 0.5 0.023 (− 0.013–0.060) 0.209 − 0.024 (− 0.059-0.010) 0.169 − 0.041 (− 0.076–0.006) 0.020
 35–39 − 0.022 (− 0.053–0.009) 0.173 0.027 (− 0.012–0.067) 0.182 − 0.004 (− 0.042–0.034) 0.837 − 0.024 (− 0.062–0.014) 0.212
 ≥ 40 − 0.027 (− 0.067–0.013) 0.186 0.043 (− 0.002–0.088) 0.060 − 0.007 (− 0.053–0.038) 0.744 − 0.026 (− 0.071–0.019) 0.257
Education           
 No education 1    1    1    1   
 1–5 years 0.049 (0.034–0.065) 0.000 0.035 (0.017–0.053) 0.000 0.043 (0.024–0.062) 0.000 0.032 (0.013–0.051) 0.001
 6–11 years 0.065 (0.052–0.079) 0.000 0.094 (0.076–0.112) 0.000 0.096 (0.079–0.113) 0.000 0.102 (0.085–0.118) 0.000
 12 years or more 0.072 (0.056–0.088) 0.000 0.164 (0.139–0.188) 0.000 0.143 (0.123–0.164) 0.000 0.161 (0.139–0.183) 0.000
Caste            
 Forward caste 1    1    1    1   
 Other backward castes − 0.017 (− 0.030–0.005) 0.008 − 0.009 (− 0.026–0.009) 0.344 − 0.020 (− 0.036––0.003) 0.017 − 0.026 (− 0.043–0.010) 0.002
 Scheduled castes − 0.019 (− 0.035–0.004) 0.015 − 0.036 (− 0.056–0.015) 0.001 − 0.028 (− 0.048–0.009) 0.004 − 0.04 (− 0.061–0.019) 0.000
 Scheduled tribes − 0.038 (− 0.064–0.013) 0.003 − 0.054 (− 0.086–0.021) 0.001 − 0.083 (− 0.115–0.051) 0.000 − 0.076 (− 0.107–0.044) 0.000
Religion            
 Hindu 1    1    1    1   
 Muslim 0.002 (− 0.018–0.023) 0.799 − 0.017 (− 0.042–0.008) 0.18 − 0.012 (− 0.036–0.012) 0.339 − 0.032 (− 0.057–0.006) 0.014
 Others religions − 0.004 (− 0.025–0.018) 0.75 0.021 (− 0.015–0.058) 0.254 − 0.022 (− 0.047–0.003) 0.083 − 0.019 (− 0.047–0.009) 0.181
Urban/rural residence            
 Urban − 0.038 (− 0.095–0.019) 0.188 − 0.054 (− 0.183–0.075) 0.413 − 0.082 (− 0.165–0.000) 0.051 − 0.054 (− 0.138–0.029) 0.200
 Rural 1    1       1   
Wealth quintile             
 Lowest 1    1    1    1   
 Lower 0.053 (0.037–0.070) 0.000 0.038 (0.021–0.056) 0.000 0.053 (0.034–0.072) 0.000 0.024 (0.005–0.044) 0.014
 Middle 0.078 (0.060–0.967) 0.000 0.071 (0.049–0.093) 0.000 0.089 (0.067–0.111) 0.000 0.067 (0.044–0.089) 0.000
 Richer 0.092 (0.072–0.112) 0.000 0.094 (0.069–0.119) 0.000 0.123 (0.099–0.247) 0.000 0.104 (0.080–0.129) 0.000
 Richest 0.109 (0.088–0.131) 0.000 0.157 (0.127–0.187) 0.000 0.164 (0.137–0.190) 0.000 0.154 (0.126–0.182) 0.000
Parity − 0.022 (− 0.026–0.018) 0.000 − 0.02 (− 0.025–0.017) 0.000 − 0.031 (− 0.036–0.026) 0.000 − 0.031 (− 0.036–0.026) 0.000