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Table 3 Gender ratio, gender wage gap and healthcare occupation wage ratio by country group and year, with average annual percentage change (AAPC)

From: Feminisation of the health workforce and wage conditions of health professions: an exploratory analysis

ResultsYear of analysisAAPC
200620072008200920102011201220132014
Gender ratio (%, n)
Support and allied healthcare
HIC0.80 (5 573)0.78 (4 904)0.79 (7 581)0.79 (3 616)0.82 (4 571)0.82 (4 983)0.83 (4 521)0.82 (3 968)0.82 (5 973)0.7*
UMIC0.57 (280)0.70 (852)0.68 (1 220)0.66 (788)0.71 (1 105)0.81 (2 220)0.81 (2 456)0.80 (1 468)0.80 (1 291)3.9*
LMIC 0.67 (7)0.67 (28)0.47 (72)0.53 (142)0.70 (945)0.72 (992)0.70 (603)0.72 (615)2.8
Clinical and technical healthcare
HIC0.68 (1 162)0.74 (763)0.72 (1 317)0.67 (912)0.71 (756)0.73 (924)0.73 (741)0.78 (598)0.75 (930)1.1
UMIC0.50 (93)0.45 (421)0.54 (691)0.42 (650)0.57 (820)0.63 (1 315)0.68 (1 254)0.68 (683)0.70 (614)5.8*
LMIC 0.36 (10)0.33 (27)0.27 (44)0.37 (113)0.57 (698)0.62 (631)0.54 (441)0.57 (306)4.5
All healthcare
HIC0.73 (6 735)0.75 (5 667)0.74 (8 898)0.71 (4 628)0.76 (5 327)0.76 (5 907)0.77 (5 262)0.79 (4 566)0.79 (6 903)1.1*
UMIC0.52 (373)0.50 (1 273)0.57 (1 911)0.47 (1 438)0.60 (1 925)0.68 (3 535)0.71 (3 710)0.72 (2 151)0.73 (1 905)5.6*
LMIC 0.41 (17)0.36 (55)0.30 (116)0.41 (255)0.60 (1 643)0.65 (1 623)0.58 (1 044)0.62 (921)6.4
General workforce
HIC0.47 (137 408)0.42 (109 434)0.40 (178 940)0.42 (87 713)0.41 (90 844)0.43 (100 617)0.43 (84 755)0.44 (75 334)0.43 (101 321)0
UMIC0.40 (14 109)0.42 (37 369)0.45 (79 430)0.36 (46 728)0.44 (61 254)0.49 (121 838)0.53 (114 178)0.53 (67 127)0.54 (48 887)4.3*
LMIC0.20 (3 154)0.24 (938)0.19 (5 967)0.23 (8 731)0.22 (17 188)0.41 (72 928)0.44 (58 797)0.39 (42 214)0.41 (31 209)11.8*
Gender wage gap (mean, standard deviation)
Support and allied healthcare
HIC0.10 (0.14)0.18 (0.26)0.17 (0.26)0.22 (0.28)0.27 (0.46)0.21 (0.30)0.22 (0.33)0.23 (0.35)0.18 (0.39)15.4
UMIC0.14 (0.39)− 0.01 (0.01)− 0.11 (0.34)0.05 (0.13)0.33 (0.94)0.21 (0.47)0.39 (1.31)0.18 (0.48)0.36 (0.87)14.9*
LMIC 0.95 (1.14)0.80 (1.83)0.17 (0.39)0.73 (2.05)0.61 (2.48)0.51 (1.40)0.80 (2.27)0.21 (0.87)4.8
Clinical and technical healthcare
HIC0.38 (0.51)0.27 (0.42)0.33 (0.49)0.40 (0.50)0.53 (0.81)0.45 (0.74)0.48 (0.61)0.27 (0.44)0.23 (0.45)0.6
UMIC− 0.03 (0.08)0.25 (0.58)0.30 (0.62)0.24 (0.58)0.36 (0.83)0.26 (0.52)0.17 (0.49)0.50 (1.21)0.54 (1.20)11.3*
LMIC 0.81 (1.32)− 1.01 (1.55)0.23 (0.34)0.40 (1.10)0.24 (0.81)0.36 (0.73)0.51 (1.52)0.43 (1.44)3.9
All healthcare
HIC0.26 (0.38)0.24 (0.36)0.25 (0.39)0.29 (0.38)0.38 (0.63)0.33 (0.50)0.34 (0.48)0.26 (0.41)0.24 (0.51)1
UMIC0.09 (0.25)0.15 (0.38)0.12 (0.32)0.23 (0.58)0.37 (0.97)0.26 (0.56)0.31 (1.00)0.36 (1.05)0.47 (1.14)20.7*
LMIC 0.87 (1.22)0.27 (0.74)0.20 (0.39)0.54 (1.78)0.47 (1.75)0.47 (1.13)0.70 (2.71)0.36 (1.39)1.1
General workforce
HIC0.21 (0.29)0.22 (0.34)0.21 (0.34)0.23 (0.33)0.24 (0.45)0.22 (0.41)0.24 (0.39)0.23 (0.39)0.20 (0.42)0.2
UMIC0.09 (0.26)0.16 (0.45)0.14 (0.37)0.21 (0.52)0.29 (0.68)0.23 (0.55)0.33 (0.81)0.34 (0.84)0.33 (0.79)16.7*
LMIC0.41 (1.28)0.28 (0.65)0.18 (0.39)0.35 (1.10)0.47 (1.45)0.45 (1.40)0.49 (1.73)0.58 (1.97)0.52 (1.67)9.2*
Healthcare occupation wage ratio (mean for women, mean for men)
Support and allied healthcare
HIC0.97 (0.92,1.02)0.94 (0.85,1.03)0.94 (0.85,1.03)0.94 (0.82,1.05)0.92 (0.78,1.07)0.90 (0.79,1.00)0.92 (0.80,1.03)0.98 (0.86,1.11)0.87 (0.78,0.96)− 0.6 (− 1.3, − 0.1)
UMIC1.05 (0.97,1.13)0.98 (0.98,0.98)0.96 (1.01,0.91)0.88 (0.85,0.90)0.92 (0.74,1.10)0.84 (0.75,0.95)1.07 (0.81,1.33)0.87 (0.78,0.95)0.90 (0.70,1.10)− 1.3 (− 4.2*, 1.0)
LMIC 0.85 (0.08,1.62)0.39 (1.13,0.64)0.40 (0.36,0.44)0.34 (0.15,0.54)0.78 (0.44,1.13)0.51 (0.34,0.69)0.66 (0.22,1.11)0.46 (0.41,0.52)− 1.4 (8.2, − 3.2)
Clinical and technical healthcare
HIC1.47 (1.13,1.83)1.40 (1.18,1.62)1.40 (1.12,1.68)1.14 (0.86,1.43)1.45 (0.93,1.98)1.30 (0.92,1.68)1.36 (0.93,1.79)1.31 (1.10,1.52)1.45 (1.26,1.63)− 0.4 (− 0.1, − 0.6)
UMIC1.32 (1.34,1.29)1.34 (1.16,1.54)1.28 (1.05,1.50)1.23 (1.07,1.40)1.15 (0.90,1.40)0.94 (0.80,1.09)1.07 (0.97,1.18)1.14 (0.77,1.52)1.22 (0.07,1.54)− 2.9* (− 6.8*, − 0.2)
LMIC 0.70 (0.23,1.18)0.40 (0.53,0.26)0.42 (0.36,0.47)0.76 (0.57,0.95)0.76 (0.66,0.86)0.70 (0.55,0.86)0.65 (0.43,0.87)0.74 (0.53,0.94)5.4 (7.9, 7.6)
All healthcare
HIC1.11 (0.94,1.27)1.03 (0.89,1.17)0.04 (0.88,1.19)1.00 (0.83,1.17)0.04 (0.80,1.28)1.01 (0.81,1.20)1.03 (0.82,1.23)1.04 (0.89,1.20)0.96 (0.83,1.09)− 0.9 (− 1.1, − 0.7)
UMIC1.12 (1.07,1.18)1.12 (1.03,1.21)1.10 (1.03,1.17)1.06 (0.92,1.19)1.03 (0.79,1.26)0.90 (0.76,1.03)1.05 (0.86,1.25)1.00 (0.78,1.22)1.01 (0.70,1.32)− 1.6 (− 5.0*, 0.8)
LMIC0.65 (0.48,0.83)0.77 (0.18,1.35)0.41 (0.35,0.47)0.41 (0.36,0.45)0.54 (0.34,0.75)0.75 (0.52,0.98)0.59 (0.41,0.78)0.64 (0.29,0.98)0.56 (0.44,0.68)0.3 (3.2, 0.0)
  1. Abbreviations: AAPC average annual percentage change, HIC high-income country, UMIC upper-middle-income country, LMIC lower middle-income country
  2. *Statistically significant AAPC result (p value less than 0.01)