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Table 2 Categorization of results

From: Interventions to improve team effectiveness within health care: a systematic review of the past decade

Interventions n Description
1. Training 174 “A systematic process through which a team is trained to master and improve different aspects of team functioning.” [8]
 1.1 Principle-based training   
  a. CRM-based training 40 “Training based on a management concept used in the aviation industry to improve teamwork. CRM encompasses a wide range of knowledge, skills, and attitudes including communication, situational awareness, problem solving, decision making, and teamwork.” [8]
  b. TeamSTEPPS 28 A specific set of strategies and techniques, aimed at optimizing patient outcomes by improving communication and teamwork skills among healthcare professionals. (https://www.ahrq.gov/teamstepps/index.html)
 1.2 Method-based training: Simulation-based training 69 “Training that recreates characteristics of the real world.” [8]
 1.3 General team training 37 General team training includes studies that each has a unique combination of principles and learning methods.
2. Tools 83 Specific instruments that teams can use to improve teamwork [8]
 2.1 Structuring tools   Tools that are used to partly standardize the process of team interaction.
  a. SBAR 11 The SBAR (Situation, Background, Assessment, Recommendation) is a framework for communication between team members about a patient’s condition. (www.ihi.org)
  b. (De)briefing checklist 51 A tool that creates an opportunity for professionals to systematically communicate and discuss (potential) issues before or after delivering care to a patient, based on a structured format of elements/topics; checklist.
  c. Rounds 7 A structured interdisciplinary meeting around a patient.
 2.2 Facilitating tools 7 Tools (often technology) that facilitate communication between team members.
 2.3 Triggering tools 7 Tools that help provide information (e.g. dashboards) to incentivize team interaction.
3. Organizational (re)design 16 Design or redesign of organizational structures with the aim of improving team processes and team functioning.
4. Programme 24 A combination of interventions (training, tools, and/or organizational (re)design) bundled in a program that aims to improve team functioning.
Total 297