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Table 2 Extent of nurse prescribing, by group(s) of nurses and country

From: Nurse prescribing of medicines in 13 European countries

  Prescribing rights by major areas and conditions (IP = initial prescribing, CP = continued prescribing only)
CountryName/title of nursesVaccinesContraceptivesChronic conditionsAcute illnessesPain medicationOther
Full prescribing rights (within specialty)
 IrelandNurse prescriber1IPIPIPIPIPIP
 NetherlandsNurse Specialist2IPIPIPIPIPIP
 UKIndependent prescriber1IPIPIPIPIPIP
Limited prescribing rights
 DenmarkRegistered Nurse3CPCPCPCPCPCP
 EstoniaFamily nurse (pereõde)CP (hormonal contraceptive)CP (diabetes, hypertension)CP (acute cystitis, nitrofurantoiin)
 FinlandNurse prescriberIP (influenza, hep., varicella^)IP (hormonal contraceptive^#)CP (asthma, dyslipidemia, T2D, hypertension)^IP (pharyngitis)^, CP (UTI)^IP (e.g. local anaesthetics)^
 NetherlandsDiabetes, lung, oncology nursesIP (diabetes, oncology, lung diseases)IP (oncology)
 NorwayPublic Health NurseIPIP (including IUD)aIP (adrenaline for allergic reaction, local anaesthetics)IP (sterile equipment for IU, implants, STD kits)
 PolandRN (Master)IP (gynaecological drugs)IP (asthma, e.g. bronchodilators)IP (throat, ear, sinus, UTI)IP (analgesics, locally acting anaesthetics)IP (anti-emetics, anti-parasitic, IV infusion fluids)
 PolandRN (Bachelor) 4CP (as above)CP (as above)CP (as above)CP (as above)CP (as above)
 SpainRN (Bachelor)5IP (according to vaccination schedule)IP (emergency contraception)CPCPCPIP (OTC)
 SwedenRN (Bachelor)IP (throat, mouth, dermatological disease, GI, UTI)IP (pain management)
 UKSupplementary prescriberCPCPCPCPCPCP
  1. Cyprus, France, Switzerland (Vaud): not listed because no information available on the medicines/formulary, IP initial prescribing (prescribing right of a new medicine/product), CP continuous prescribing (follow-up prescribing after first prescription issued by physician), n/r not reported (in the law/regulations, “-“ not authorised to prescribe any medicine/product in the area, n/a no information available, OTC over-the-counter medicines, Hep. hepatitis, UTI urinary tract infection, GI grastrointestinal. 1Initial prescribing rights of all medicines falling within nurses’ specialty, restrictions and additional requirements apply to controlled drugs (e.g. UK: controlled drugs except for cocaine, dipipanone or diamorphine for treating addiction), 2Netherlands = initial prescribing rights of all medicines falling within nurses within nurse specialists’ specialty, Cyprus = details on the types of medicines/substances not (yet) specified in law; ^not for children under the age of 12, #not for women under age 35, aonly for women over 16 years of age, 3Denmark = continued prescribing according to local frame prescriptions and in a delegated model, 4Poland: prescribing rights according to formulary of 12 groups of medicines, 5Spain: prescribing rights granted to all RN with minimum 1 year work experience; for RN with less than 1 year work experience, additional training required