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Table 3 Regulatory and oversight requirements

From: Nurse prescribing of medicines in 13 European countries

CountryGroup of nursesRegistration/authorisationPhysician oversight officially required? (e.g. collaborative agreement)Other regulatory requirements (e.g. protocols, employer-level requirements)
CyprusAPNYes (authorisation from competent authority)n/rn/r
DenmarkRNNoFormal collaboration with a physicianIndividual frame prescriptions with physician required
EstoniaFamily nurse (pereõde)Yes (Health Board, Healthcare Workers’ Registry)Required to work with a family physicianNo
FinlandRNYesAuthorisation by a physicianEmployment with municipal health center; ID number with National Supervisory Authority for Welfare and Health
IrelandNurse prescriberYes (An Bord Altranais)Collaborative agreement with a physician requiredEmployment in healthcare setting, personal identification number (PIN)
NetherlandsNurse specialistYes (nurse specialist registry)NoNo
 Diabetes, lung, oncology specialist nursesNo (not legally required, but voluntary registration possible)NoFollowing protocols and after initial diagnosis by a physician
NorwayPublic health nurseYes (National registry of healthcare professions)NoFormal documentation of prescriptions (as any other profession), listed in central registry for prescriptions logs
PolandRN (Master)NoNoNo
 RN (Bachelor)NoContinuous prescribing only, after initial diagnosis by physicianNo
SpainRN (Bachelor)Yes (regions in charge of issuing certificates on prescribing)Yes, physician supervisionFor certain medicines, prescribing rights to be defined in protocols and clinical guidelines, to be developed by the Medical and Nursing Councils and MoH
SwedenRN (Bachelor)Yes (prescribing code at Board of Health and Welfare)No (e.g. if employed as district nurse, works independently)Employment with county council, primary, home health or elderly care
UKIndependent prescriberYes (annotation in registry as independent prescriber)Prescribing partnership with physician requiredSupport from employing organisation, personal identification number
 Supplementary prescriberYes (annotation as supplementary prescriber)Clinical management plan, prescribing partnership with physicianSupport from employing organisation, ID number, continued prescribing of medicines listed in individual clinical management plan agreed between patient, physician and supplementary prescriber
  1. APN advanced practice nurse, MoH Ministry of Health, n/r not reported (in law/regulation), RN registered nurse. France, Canton Vaud (Switzerland): no information available