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Table 1 Medical regulation in the nineteenth century

From: Health professional regulation in historical context: Canada, the USA and the UK (19th century to present)

  United Kingdom Canada USA
   Quebec Ontario Illinois New Mexico
Date of act 1858 1847 1839, 1869 1877 1882
Regulatory body General Council of Medical Education and Registration of the United Kingdom College of Physicians and Surgeons of Lower Canada College of Physicians of Surgeons of [Upper Canada/Ontario] State Board of Health Board of Examiners
What does the regulatory body do? Maintain a register and establish rules for regulating the register. Collect information from other medical bodies and colleges respecting qualifications. Report to the Privy Council. Power to regulate the  study of medicine, surgery, midwifery and pharmacy, and examine candidate credentials, administer oaths, determine qualifications, assess credentials, determine qualifications for entry to practice, determine entry to practice, and establish fees Maintain and publish a register; review qualifications; examine candidates for entry to practice; regulate self, board of examiners, admission to study or matriculation; and establish a medical school curriculum. With respect to medical regulation, the board reviews qualifications, examines candidates for registration and hears testimony. Review diplomas, conduct exams for those without diplomas and review evidence of candidate/practitioner conduct
Who sits on board? Members are appointed by the privy council and various colleges, schools and organizations. Medical doctors elected by members of the college (CPSLC) Members elected by members of the college and representatives of the medical schools (1869) Seven individuals appointed by the governor with the advice of the senate. Medical doctors (allopaths, homeopaths and eclectic) appointed by the governor
Is medical practice closed (so only the licensed or registered can practise)? No, but the licensed do obtain certain privileges. Yes Yes Yes. Exemption for those in the armed forces Yes
Entry to study Determined by other parties (colleges and schools) Knowledge of Latin, history, geography, mathematics and philosophy. Later knowledge of French and English English language (grammar and composition, arithmetic, algebra, geometry, Latin and one of Greek, French, German or natural philosophy Not regulated by board Not regulated by board
Entry to practice Qualifications for practice are determined by pre-existing bodies (like colleges) Medical diploma, or four years of apprenticeship combined with schooling and exam. Education must be obtained in British dominions. Also evidence of good moral character. 1839—college may set criteria for entry to practice.
1869—previously licensed, medical diploma or pass exam.
Diploma in medicine or completion of board exam Diploma or exam in specified subjects. Proof of conduct may be reviewed.