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Table 3 Indications for caesarean section as described in case file

From: Impact of Medical Doctors Global Health and Tropical Medicine on decision-making in caesarean section: a pre- and post-implementation study in a rural hospital in Malawi

Indication N %
Cephalopelvic disproportion 150 23.3
Foetal distress 82 12.7
Prolonged first stage of labour 79 12.2
Two or more previous CS 57 8.8
Foetal malpresentation 53 8.2
Prolonged second stage of labour 30 4.7
Failed VBAC 20 3.1
Obstructed labour 16 2.5
Eclampsia 14 2.2
APH 12 1.9
Pre-eclampsia 10 1.6
Cervical dystocia 10 1.6
Cord prolapse 9 1.4
Abruptio placentae 7 1.1
Other 42 7.0
Missing 54 8.4
Total 645 100.0
  1. Other indications were as follows: Retained second twin, premature rupture of membranes in HIV, extensive vulvovaginal warts, bad obstetric history, intra-uterine growth restriction, twin gestation in primigravida, placenta praevia, fresh caesarean scar, oligohydramnios, failed induction of labour, big fundus, previous myomectomy, active herpes infection, anhydramnios, chorioamnionitis, postdate pregnancy, epileptic convulsions, intra-uterine death with bilateral tubal ligation, stillbirth in twin gestation, cervical oedema
  2. CS caesarean section