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Table 2 Pediatric nurse burnout scores by tool

From: What is known about paediatric nurse burnout: a scoping review

Maslach Burnout Inventory
Author(s)Number of pediatric nursesAdaption to the toolAdditional/alternative resultsPersonal Accomplishment subscaleDepersonalization SubscaleEmotional Exhaustion Subscale
 Adwan [25]120No PA: min-max, 13–48, avg. 38, SD = 5.7 (moderate)DP: 0–19, avg. 5.8, SD = 4.7 (low)EE: 5–45, avg. 21, SD = 8.58 (moderate)
 Akman et al. [26]165No PA: highDP: lowEE: low
Alves and Guirardello [27]267YesEE only  EE: min-max, 9–39, avg. = 21.5, SD = 6 (moderate)
Aytekin et al. [29]85No PA: min-max, 1–22, avg. = 11.43, SD = 4.63DP: min-max, 0–13, avg. = 3.87, SD = 2.77EE: min-max, 3–27, avg. = 14.9, SD = 5.53
Bourbonnais et al. [34]57YesSeparated out EE only  High EE: 20 (35%) Crude Prevalence Ratio: 1.04
Czaja et al. [37]173No 46% low PA38% had high DP45% had EE
Davis et al. [38]15No PA: 6.67% low, 53.3% mod, 40% high  
Dos Santos Alves et al. [39]267No   Moderate EE: mean 21.5 (SD ± 6); high EE: 27%
Edmonds et al. [42]88No Pre-intervention: PA: mean 35.9 (6.4), 30.7% low PAPre-intervention: DP: mean 6.1(4.8), 25% highPre-intervention: EE: mean 22.3 (9.7), 24.1% high
Post-intervention: EE change: mean 2.2 (6.3) Wilcoxon signed-rank 0.007
7-month post-intervention: EE change: mean 2.3 (8.6) Wilcoxon signed-rank 0.004
Favrod et al. [45]91No PA: mean 31.6 (5.5), high = 3.6%, mod. = 35.7%, low = 60.7%DP: mean 4.8 (4.1), low = 64.3%, mod. = 29.8%, high = 6.0%EE: mean = 23(9.9), low = 31%, mod = 47.6%, high = 21.4%
Gallagher and Gormley [46]30No PA: low = 16.7%, mod. = 33.3%, high = 50%DP: low = 63.3%, mod. = 33.3%, high = 3.3%EE: low = 26.7%, mod. = 46.7%, High = 26.7%
Gauthier et al. [47]45NoPre/post-intervention trends: significant quadratic trajectory of PA in which PA increased at time 2 and decreased at time 3 [F(1, 35) 5.43, P = 0.03], with no significant trends for EE and DPBaseline: high PA mean 47.29 (7.43)Baseline: High DP, mean = 13.33 (5.84)Baseline: High EE, mean = 31.39 (9.85)
Günüşen et al. [48]117No PA: 19.20 (4.18)DP: 6.14 (2.98),EE: 18.85 (6.21)
Habadi et al. [49]22NoBurnout = 0.55%Low PA: 36.4%High DP: 22.7%High EE: 59%
Hylton et al. [53]20No EE: 39.9 (7.1)DP: 12.5 (6.2)EE: 33 (13.8)
Jacobs et al. [54]47Yes—used in conjunction with Copenhagen Burnout InventoryAnalysis of subgroup differences between nurses and non-nurses indicated a trend toward nurses reporting higher work-related burnout (39.92 vs. 35.86, P < .067) and client-related burnout (23.88 vs. 18.96, P < .061).   
Klein et al. [56]302Yes—selection of 10 questions of the Maslach Burnout Inventory: MBI covering each subscale“I have accomplished many worthwhile things in this job” = 4.32 (4.13–4.50); “I feel very energetic” = 4.11 (3.93–4.28); “In my work, I deal with emotional problems very calmly” = 3.07 (2.83–3.31); “I feel fatigued when I get up in the morning and have to face another day on the job” = 1.91 (1.74–2.08); “I feel emotionally drained from my work” = 1.29 (1.16–1.41); “I feel burned out from my work” = 1.26 (1.13–1.40); “I feel frustrated by my job” = 1.26 (1.14–1.38); “I worry that this job is hardening me emotionally” = 0.89 (0.74–1.04); “I do not really care what happens to some patients” = 0.41 (0.30–0.53); “I feel I treat some patients as if they were impersonal objects” = 0.24 (0.16–0.32)   
Lewiston et al. [59]38No9 RNs had burnout greater than the mean (high burnout) and 11 had burnout below the mean (low burnout)   
Liakopoulou et al. [61]71No PA mean = 37.8 (5.8)DP mean = 5.2 (4.9)EE mean = 27.5 (9.5)
Lin et al. [62]14No PA mean = 34.5 (7.1) (moderate)DP mean = 3.6 (4.0) (low)EE mean = 24.2 (15.6) (moderate)
Liu et al. [64]101Nomean = 7.09 (3.23) (lower job burnout)   
Moussa and Mahmood [71]55No PA: high level burnout 14.5%, low level burnout 85.5%DP: high level burnout 74.5%, low level burnout 25.5%EE: high level burnout 56.4%, low level burnout 43.6%;
Mudallal et al. [72]39No PA: mean = 31.23 (12.14)DP: mean = 12.74 (4.89)EE: mean = 28.33 (12.63)
Nguyen et al. [75]78No16.7% burned out, 14.1% exhausted, 3.8% depressed, 65.4% healthyPA = 4.06 (0.61)DP mean = 2.86 (0.73)EE mean = 3.12 (0.95)
Oehler and Davidson [76]121NoOverall, scores represent moderate EE, DP, and high lack of PAlow PA mean = 36.6, mod PA mean = 32.8, high PA mean = 30.6low DP mean = 2.7, mod DP mean = 7.2, high DP mean = 11.9Low EE mean = 12.2, mod EE mean = 24.2, high EE mean = 32.7
Oehler et al. [77]49No PA mean = 32.1 (6.9) (high)DP mean = 6.9 (4.9) (moderate)EE mean = 24.1 (10.1) (moderate)
Ohue et al. [78]27Yes—revised version of MBI PA mean = 14.44 (4.26)DP mean = 12.44 (4.21)EE mean = 17.44 (3.61)
Paula Vega et al. [98]153No 79.7% (n = 122) showed medium to low level of PA, and it was more evident in oncology professionals, as 41% of them showed low PA.16% (n = 11) had a high level of DP.48.4% (n = 74) of participants had a medium or high level of EE.
Profit et al. [80]1 499Yes—four-item Emotional Exhaustion scale, based on the MBINurses reporting burnout mean = 26.9%, SD = 11.4, P = 0.0004 (based on the authors determined cutoff)   
Richter et al. [81]17No Nurses in the pilot study experienced average levels of PA during the pilot phase of the study. No changes across the pre/post-intervention phases.Nurses in the pilot study experienced low levels of DP and no changes across the pre/post-intervention phases.Nurses in the pilot study experienced high levels of EE and no changes across the pre/post-intervention phases.
Rochefort and Clarke [83]339Yes—only EE subscale   35.7% had EE scores higher than the published norms for medical personnel.
Rodrigues et al. [85]73Yes—only EE and DP subscales  DP mean = 6.24 (4.67) (20% have high DP)EE mean = 24.39 (11.68) (46% have high EE)
Rodrigues et al. [84]33Yes—only EE and DP subscales  DP pre: 11.34 (4.66), DP post: 9.25 (3.23)
63% reported high DP at baseline, and 3 months after the intervention, there were still 34% reporting high DP.
EE pre: 32.38 (11.29), EE post: 29.47 (10.52)
73% of our nurses reported high EE at baseline, and 3 months after the intervention, there were still 47% of our nurses reporting high EE.
Rodriguez-Rey et al. [86]281No PA mean = 37.74 (6.88)DP mean = 6.41 (4.56)EE mean = 21.74 (9.17)
Skorobogatova et al. [89]94No PA mean = 29.1 (10.12); low levels of self-esteem and self-efficacy and achievement (as components of professional burnout) were found in 61.7%, and moderate levels were found in 23.4% of respondentsDP mean = 3.8 (4.75); moderate levels of DP in 9.6% and high levels in 12.8% of nursesEE mean = 14.4 (7.91); overall, moderate EE was common in 41.5% and high in 9.6% of neonatal nurses.
Soroush et al. [90]86NoBurnout mean = 46.2 (12.5) (mod)PA mean = 22.6 (5.4 (strong lack of PA))DP mean = 2.6 (31) (weak)EE mean = 21.28 (8.1 (mod))
Stimpfel et al. [92]3 710NoNurses who work 8 h shifts: 25% burned out; nurses who work 12 h shifts: 24% burned out; nurses who work > 13 h shifts: 46% burned out   
Sun et al. [93]51No14 (27.5%) were positive for burnout, and 37 (72.5%) were negative for burnout.   
Sun et al. [94]277No PA mean = 33.88 (2.77)DP mean = 10.97 (1.67)EE mean = 21.45 (2.92)
Vicentic et al. [97]60No Nurses/techs for children with CP: PA mean = 36.40 (6.473) (30% low risk, 40% mod risk, 30% high risk)
Nurses/tech for children without CP: PA mean = 36.37 (11.180) (47% low risk, 30% mod risk, 23% high risk)
Nurses/techs for children with CP: DP mean = 4.31 (5.594) (87% low risk, 13% high risk)
Nurses/tech for children without CP: DP mean = 4.47 (4.584) (83% low risk, 17% high risk)
Nurses/techs for children with CP: EE mean = 25.67 (15.043) (33% low risk, 17% mod risk, 50% high risk
Nurses/tech for children without CP: EE mean = 17.57 (10.153)(53% low risk, 30% mod risk, 17% high risk)
Watson and Feld [99]14No PA mean = 34.93 (4.53)DP mean = 4.86 (4.41)EE mean = 22.27 (10.31)
Yao et al. [100]44No PA mean = 11.0 (9.7)DP mean = 7.0 (6.1)EE mean = 32.8 (15.5)
Zanatta and Lucca [101]57No PA: high 24.6%, mod 52.6%, low 22.8%DP: high 29.8%, mod 43.9%, low 26.3%EE: high 24.6%, mod 49.1%, low 26.3%
Professional Quality of Life Scale
Author(s)Number of pediatric nursesResults
Amin et al. [28]129Low: 26.4% (34)Moderate: 50.4% (65)High: 23.3% (30)
Barr [30]142mean = 2.4, SD = .52
Berger et al. [32]239Low: 23% (55)Moderate: 47.7% (114)High: 29.3 (70)
Branch and Klinkenberg [35]179Mean = 49.7 (9.6)
Meadors et al. [66]23Mean = 14.82 (4.33)
Roney and Acri [87]318The 25th percentile ranking for the Burnout subscale of the Professional Quality of Life (ProQOL) measure was 43.45, the 50th percentile ranking was 49.22, and the 75th percentile was 56.92.
The average score on the burnout subscale is 50, which is higher than the 50th percentile ranking in this current study (slightly lower than average levels of burnout).
Sekol and Kim [88]240Surgical unit burnout = 24.5 (5.1); medical unit burnout = 22.8 (4.7); critical care unit burnout = 23.0 (4.7); hematology/oncology unit burnout = 20.2 (3.9)
Compassion Fatigue Self-Test
Author(s)Number of pediatric nursesResults
Kase et al. [55]434.7% prevalence
Latimer et al. [58]27Mean = 23(10.8) (significantly higher than pediatric allied health providers)
Li et al. [60]251Mean = 24.01 (SD = 11.67)
Meyer et al. [16]251Mean = 24.01 (SD = 11.67)
Morrison Wylde et al. [70]95Score after smartphone-delivered mindfulness: 22.37 (11.90)
Score after traditional delivered mindfulness: 26.14 (11.25)
Robins et al. [82]136Mean = 27.8 (10.6)—extremely low risk
The Tedium Measure
Author(s)Number of pediatric nursesResults
Pagel and Wittmann [79]74The burnout scale mean for all subjects was 3.5855 with a standard deviation of .701. The scores ranged from 1.7142 to 5.4766 (signifies evidence of burnout).
The Copenhagen Burnout Inventory
Author(s)Number of pediatric nursesResults
Faller et al. [44]117Half had high work-related burnout, and half had low work-related burnout.
Jacobs et al. [54]47Analysis of subgroup differences between nurses and non-nurses indicated a trend toward nurses reporting higher work-related burnout (39.92 vs. 35.86, P < .067) and patient-related burnout (23.88 vs. 18.96, P < .061). *Conducted with MBI
Morelius et al. [69]47NICU nurses: CBI, personal related burnout: 32.4 (13.8); work-related burnout: 24.3 (9.9); client-related burnout: 13.3 (9.1)
Child and adolescent psychiatry nurses: personal-related burnout: 32.4 (14.5); work-related burnout: 28.1 (16.3); client-related burnout: 22.9 (15.7)
Occupational Burnout Inventory
Author(s)Number of pediatric nursesResults
Hsu et al. [52]5Mean = 60.00 (SD = 11.75) (scale is out of 90, higher = greater burnout)
Jacobs et al. [54]47Analysis of subgroup differences between nurses and non-nurses indicated a trend toward nurses reporting higher work-related burnout (39.92 vs. 35.86, P < .067) and patient-related burnout (23.88 vs. 18.96, P < .061).
Paunonen’s instrument
Author(s)Number of pediatric nursesResults
Koivula et al. [57]21Mean = 6.15, SD = (0.71) (mild)
Popoff and Funkhouser’s survey of nurses (adapted version)
Author(s)Number of pediatric nursesPersonal Accomplishment subscale
Downey et al. [40]59PA mean = 1.0 (0.8)
  1. MBI Maslach Burnout Inventory; EE Emotional Exhaustion, a subscale of the Maslach Burnout Inventory; DP Depersonalization, a subscale of the Maslach Burnout Inventory; PA Personal Accomplishment, a subscale of the Maslach Burnout Inventory; CP cerebral palsy; ProQOL Professional Quality of Life Scale; CBI Copenhagen Burnout Inventory; SD standard deviation, NICU neonatal intensive care; Mod moderate