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Table 5 Students’ assessment of factors influencing the online education satisfaction

From: Barriers and facilitators to online medical and nursing education during the COVID-19 pandemic: perspectives from international students from low- and middle-income countries and their teaching staff

Code Questions about the factors influencing the online education satisfaction Comparison of positive and negative responses to the factors
All students (n = 230) Students inside China (n = 77) Students outside China (n = 153)
  Crisis-related category /
Sa-01 How much do the epidemiological data related to the COVID-19 pandemic affect your online learning? /
Sa-02 How much does the lockdown due to the COVID-19 pandemic affect your learning state? /
Sa-03 How much are you satisfied with your current learning environment?  +  /  + 
Sa-04 How well are you adapt to the sudden change of the teaching pattern (from fully offline to fully online)?  +   +   + 
Sa-05 How much are you affected by the uncertainty of the university-opening date and the following teaching arrangement? /
Sa-06 How much do the economic issues related to the COVID-19 affect your online learning? /
  Learner-related category  +  /  + 
Sb-01 How much do you enjoy independent study?  +   +  /
Sb-02 How much are you concerned about the data cost for the online learning? /
Sb-03 How much are you familiar with the online learning technologies? / / /
Sb-04 How much do you enjoy having the flexibility to regulate your time for online learning?  +  /  + 
Sb-05 How much do you consider yourself self-disciplined?  +  /  + 
Sb-06 How much are you motivated for the online learning?  +  /  + 
Sb-07 How much are you affected by the sense of distance during your learning?
Sb-08 How much do you participate in the discussions?  +  /  + 
Sb-09 How much do you like to post messages while having live e-lectures?  +  /  + 
Sb-10 How well do you accomplish your assignments?  +  / /
Sb-11 How frequently do you access the Internet for online learning?  +  /  + 
Sb-12 How frequently do you review the online courses?  +  /  + 
Sb-13 How much do you use the course resources (such as preview and review materials) provided?  +  /  + 
Sb-14 How much are you satisfied with your performance in the quizzes?  +   +   + 
Sb-15 How much are you affected by the limited contacts with your classmates during the learning process? / / /
  Instructor-related category  +   +   + 
Sc-01 How would you evaluate the teachers’ overall performance?  +  /  + 
Sc-02 How adequate is the duration of the online courses?  +   +   + 
Sc-03 How adequate are attention and care you have received from the teachers during the learning process?  +  /  + 
Sc-04 How adequate are the interactions with the teachers during online teaching process?  +  /  + 
Sc-05 How adequate is the time scheduled for discussions (such as Q and A class)?  +  /  + 
Sc-06 How helpful are the course resources (such as preview and review materials) provided by the teachers?  +   +   + 
Sc-07 How easy is the use of the course resources?  +   +   + 
Sc-08 How easy is it for you to communicate with the teachers via the communication tool?  +  /  + 
Sc-09 How available are the teachers apart from the scheduled communication time?  +  /  + 
Sc-10 How clearly are the teaching contents expressed?  +   +   + 
  Course-related category  +   +   + 
Sd-01 How well the online courses are administrated?  +  /  + 
Sd-02 How effective are the design and arrangement of the online courses?  +   +   + 
Sd-03 How much is your online learning affected by the network conditions? /
Sd-04 How much is your online learning affected by the jet lag in your country? / /
Sd-05 How much is your online learning affected by the facility you are using? /
Sd-06 How much is your online learning affected by the absence of experimental/practical classes? / /
Sd-07 How much helpful is the playback support in the online courses?  +   +  /
Sd-08 How much are you satisfied with the tools for discussions (Q and A class)?  +   +   + 
Sd-09 How much are you satisfied with the assignments specifically oriented to online learning?  +   +   + 
Sd-10 How adequate do you think the support and help from the university you have received during your online learning process?  +   +   + 
Sd-11 How clear are the objectives for the online courses?  +   +   + 
Sd-12 How much collaborative learning is there during the online learning?  +  /  + 
  1. 1. Code of the questions: The letter S refers to the questions for students; the letters a, b, c and d represent 4 categories (crisis-related category, learner-related category, instructor-related category and course-related category), respectively
  2. 2. Students’ ratings of the questions did not comply with the normal distribution, so Kruskal–Wallis rank-sum test was performed to compare if there was any significant difference between the students who were satisfied with the online education and those who were not satisfied in each question
  3. 3. The symbol “/” indicated that there was no significant difference between the satisfied students and the dissatisfied students
  4. 4. The symbol “ + ” indicated that there was significant difference between the satisfied students and the dissatisfied students, and the factor was positively related with the satisfaction of online education (the mean rating of satisfied students was higher than that of dissatisfied students)
  5. 5. The symbol “−” indicated that there was significant difference between the satisfied students and the dissatisfied students, and the factor was negatively related with the satisfaction of online education (the mean rating of dissatisfied students was higher than that of satisfied students)