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Table 1 Distribution of subjects among quintile groups of municipality by population density

From: Education policies to increase rural physicians in Japan: a nationwide cohort study

Category Quintile of municipalities sorted by population density, no. (%)a P value RRb of 1 95% CI
1 low 2 3 4 5 high Total
PGY-1          
 All graduates 1805 (20.7) 1842 (21.1) 1627 (18.7) 1855 (21.3) 1582 (18.2) 8711 (100.0)   1.000 NA–NA
 Scholarship alone 54 (48.2) 35 (31.3) 10 (8.9) 9 (8.0) 4 (3.6) 112 (100.0)  < 0.001 2.327 1.912–2.831
 Quota alone 34 (31.5) 21 (19.4) 24 (22.2) 18 (16.7) 11 (10.2) 108 (100.0) 0.082 1.519 1.147–2.013
 Quota with scholarship 125 (51.0) 69 (28.2) 22 (9.0) 18 (7.3) 11 (4.5) 245 (100.0)  < 0.001 2.462 2.163–2.802
 Jichi 52 (40.9) 42 (33.1) 17 (13.4) 9 (7.1) 7 (5.5) 127 (100.0)  < 0.001 1.976 1.597–2.445
PGY-2          
 All graduates 1611 (19.6) 1721 (21.0) 1570 (19.1) 1704 (20.8) 1603 (19.5) 8209 (100.0)   1.000 NA–NA
 Scholarship alone 60 (46.2) 28 (21.5) 14 (10.8) 13 (10.0) 15 (11.5) 130 (100.0)  < 0.001 2.352 1.943–2.846
 Quota alone 46 (35.9) 25 (19.5) 32 (25.0) 10 (7.8) 15 (11.7) 128 (100.0)  < 0.001 1.831 1.447–2.317
 Quota with scholarship 81 (43.8) 52 (28.1) 21 (11.4) 18 (9.7) 13 (7.0) 185 (100.0)  < 0.001 2.231 1.884–2.642
 Jichi 40 (39.6) 33 (32.7) 14 (13.9) 8 (7.9) 6 (5.9) 101 (100.0)  < 0.001 2.018 1.580–2.578
PGY-3          
 All graduates 1467 (17.9) 1510 (18.4) 1591 (19.4) 1722 (21.0) 1905 (23.2) 8195 (100.0)   1.000 NA–NA
 Scholarship alone 54 (47.4) 33 (28.9) 13 (11.4) 9 (7.9) 5 (4.4) 114 (100.0)  < 0.001 2.646 2.169–3.229
 Quota alone 27 (28.4) 21 (22.1) 20 (21.1) 12 (12.6) 15 (15.8) 95 (100.0) 0.070 1.588 1.150–2.192
 Quota with scholarship 90 (49.7) 43 (23.8) 26 (14.4) 13 (7.2) 9 (5.0) 181 (100.0)  < 0.001 2.778 2.382–3.239
 Jichi 89 (78.1) 9 (7.9) 8 (7.0) 1 (0.9) 7 (6.1) 114 (100.0)  < 0.001 4.361 3.916–4.857
PGY-4          
 All graduates 1646 (21.1) 1547 (19.8) 1446 (18.5) 1646 (21.1) 1521 (19.5) 7806 (100.0)   1.000 NA–NA
 Scholarship alone 59 (44.7) 49 (37.1) 15 (11.4) 6 (4.5) 3 (2.3) 132 (100.0)  < 0.001 2.120 1.745–2.575
 Quota alone 39 (37.9) 20 (19.4) 19 (18.4) 16 (15.5) 9 (8.7) 103 (100.0) 0.001 1.796 1.397–2.308
 Quota with scholarship 85 (62.5) 28 (20.6) 12 (8.8) 6 (4.4) 5 (3.7) 136 (100.0)  < 0.001 2.964 2.584–3.399
 Jichi 98 (88.3) 7 (6.3) 4 (3.6) 2 (1.8) 0 (0.0) 111 (100.0)  < 0.001 4.187 3.864–4.537
PGY-5          
 All graduates 1542 (20.9) 1467 (19.9) 1379 (18.7) 1565 (21.2) 1419 (19.2) 7372 (100.0)   1.000 NA–NA
 Scholarship alone 57 (53.3) 24 (22.4) 9 (8.4) 8 (7.5) 9 (8.4) 107 (100.0)  < 0.001 2.547 2.121–3.058
 Quota alone 26 (53.1) 7 (14.3) 6 (12.2) 9 (18.4) 1 (2.0) 49 (100.0)  < 0.001 2.537 1.942–3.313
 Quota with scholarship 46 (65.7) 13 (18.6) 6 (8.6) 1 (1.4) 4 (5.7) 70 (100.0)  < 0.001 3.142 2.637–3.742
 Jichi 89 (84.0) 7 (6.6) 4 (3.8) 3 (2.8) 3 (2.8) 106 (100.0)  < 0.001 4.014 3.653–4.411
Total          
 All graduates 8071 (20.0) 8087 (20.1) 7613 (18.9) 8492 (21.1) 8030 (19.9) 40,293 (100.0)   1.000 NA–NA
 Scholarship alone 284 (47.7) 169 (28.4) 61 (10.3) 45 (7.6) 36 (6.1) 595 (100.0)  < 0.001 2.383 2.186–2.598
 Quota alone 172 (35.6) 94 (19.5) 101 (20.9) 65 (13.5) 51 (10.6) 483 (100.0)  < 0.001 1.778 1.574–2.007
 Quota with scholarship 427 (52.3) 205 (25.1) 87 (10.6) 56 (6.9) 42 (5.1) 817 (100.0)  < 0.001 2.609 2.437–2.794
 Jichi 368 (65.8) 98 (17.5) 47 (8.4) 23 (4.1) 23 (4.1) 559 (100.0)  < 0.001 3.287 3.086–3.500
  1. PGY postgraduate year; RR relative risk; CI confidence interval
  2. aQuintile 1 ≤ 522.7; quintile 2 ≤ 1301.0; quintile 3 ≤ 4665.3; quintile; 4 ≤ 10,492.6; quintile 5 > 10,492.6 persons per square kilometer
  3. bRelative risk of Quintile 1 against Quintiles 2–5 with "all graduates" being the reference group
  4. P value was calculated with Chi-square test with Bonferroni adjustment