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Table 2 Descriptive statistics of selected influencing factors on workplace responses

From: Frontline healthcare workers’ mental distress, top concerns, and assessment on hierarchy of controls in response to COVID-19: a cross-sectional survey study

Work characteristics Effective
Yes
Effective
Neutral
Effective
No
p
  N(%) N(%) N(%)  
Job category     0.190
CNA* 64 (43.84) 32 (32.65) 7 (30.43)
Nurse 58 (39.73) 52 (53.06) 15 (65.22)
Physicians and pharmacists 10 (6.85) 5 (5.10) 0 (0.00)
Other 14 (9.59) 9 (9.18) 1 (4.35)
Work years     
 < 1 41 (28.08) 25 (25.51) 3 (13.04) 0.044
1–5 73 (50.00) 49 (50.00) 16 (69.57)
6–10 21 (14.38) 17 (17.35) 1 (4.35)
11–15 3 (2.05) 6 (6.12) 0 (0.00)
 ≥ 16 8 (5.48) 1 (1.02) 3 (13.04)
Demographic characteristics Effective
Yes
Effective
Neutral
Effective
No
p
  N(%) N(%) N(%)  
Marital status     0.038
Married 40 (27.40) 43 (43.88) 11 (47.83)
Never married 100 (68.49) 49 (50.00) 11 (47.83)
Other 6 (4.11) 6 (6.12) 1 (4.35)
Practice state     0.075
MA 119 (82.07) 69 (71.13) 20 (86.96)
Other 26 (17.93) 28 (28.87) 3 (13.04)
Assessment Effective
Yes
Effective
Neutral
Effective
No
p
  N(%) N(%) N(%)  
Helpful: Federal Government**
1 4(2.74) 0(0.00) 0 (0.00) 0.028
2 17(11.64) 15(15.31) 1 (4.35)
3 71 (48.63) 37(37.76) 5 (21.74)
4 33(22.60) 33(33.67) 11 (47.83)
5 21(14.38) 13(13.27) 6 (26.09)
Helpful: State Government**
1 17(11.64) 5(5.10) 0(0.00) 0.001
2 43(29.45) 21 (21.43) 1(4.35)
3 70(47.95) 56(57.14) 14(60.87)
4 11(7.53) 14(14.29) 4(17.39)
5 5(3.42) 2(2.04) 4(17.39)
Helpful: workplace**     
1 26(17.81) 3(3.06) 0(0.00) 0.000
2 80(54.79) 26(26.53) 0(0.00)
3 36(24.66) 61(62.24) 8(34.78)
4 4(2.74) 6(6.12) 11(47.83)
5 0(0.00) 2(2.04) 4(17.39)
Timely: Federal Government
Yes 23(15.86) 8(8.16) 3(13.04) 0.032
Neutral 50(34.48) 37(37.76) 2(8.70)
No 72(49.66) 53(54.08) 18(78.26)
Timely: State Government
Yes 77(53.10) 23(23.47) 6(26.09) 0.000
Neutral 58(40.00) 56(57.14) 3(13.04)
No 10(6.90) 19(19.39) 14(60.87)
Timely: workplace  
Yes 115(79.31) 23(23.47) 2(8.70) 0.000
Neutral 27(18.62) 61(62.24) 2(8.70)
No 3(2.07) 14(14.29) 19(82.61)
Effective: Federal Government
Yes 34(23.45) 10(10.20) 2(8.70) 0.006
Neutral 57(39.31) 42(42.86) 5(21.74)
No 54(37.24) 46(46.94) 16(69.57)
Effective: State Government
Yes 92(63.01) 27(27.55) 4(17.39) 0.000
Neutral 43(29
0.45)
58(59.18) 6(26.09)
No 11(7.53) 13(13.27) 13(56.52)
Workplace measures Effective
Yes
Effective
Neutral
Effective
No
p
  N(%) N(%) N(%)  
PPE level     
Enough 89(61.38) 26(26.53) 1(4.35) 0.000
Just OK 48(33.10) 49(50.00) 6(26.09)
Not enough 8(5.52) 23(23.47) 16(69.57)
Beyond PPE    
Yes 97(67.36) 55(56.70) 7(30.43) 0.002
No 47(32.64) 42(43.30) 16(69.57)
Perceived needs Effective
Yes
Effective
Neutral
Effective
No
p
  N(%) N(%) N(%)  
Absent: patient education
Yes 20(13.70) 24(24.49) 13(56.52) 0.000
Maybe 41(28.08) 45(45.92) 7(30.43)
No 85(58.22) 29(29.59) 3(13.04)
Absent: stress management for healthcare workers
Yes 43(29.45) 53(54.08) 14(60.87) 0.000
Maybe 49(33.56) 26(26.53) 3(13.04)
No 54(36.99) 19(19.39) 6(26.09)
Absent: stress management for patients
Yes 47(32.19) 49(50.00) 12(52.17) 0.008
Maybe 59(40.41) 38(38.78) 6(26.09)
No 40(27.40) 11(11.22) 5(21.74)
Shortage: medical supplies
Yes 83(56.85) 65(66.33) 19(82.61) 0.011
Maybe 31(21.23) 24(24.49) 4(17.39)
No 32(21.92) 9(9.18) 0(0.00)
Shortage: health workers
Yes 65(44.52) 55(56.12) 16(69.57) 0.073
Maybe 37(25.34) 21(21.43) 1(4.35)
No 44(30.14) 22(22.45) 6(26.09)
Shortage: beds     
Yes 46(31.51) 48(48.98) 9(39.13) 0.038
Maybe 42(28.77) 26(26.53) 4(17.39)
No 58(39.73) 24(24.49) 10(43.48)
  1. *Certified nursing assistant
  2. **1 = extremely helpful, 2 = very helpful, 3 = somewhat helpful, 4 = not so helpful, 5 = not at all helpful