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Table 2 Articles related to extreme weather events

From: Health workforce strategies in response to major health events: a rapid scoping review with lessons learned for the response to the COVID-19 pandemic

Extreme weather events
First author (year)
(citation)
Emergency (year) Types of challenges Types of strategies Provider groups Organizational setting Type of article Types of evaluations
Albahari (2017)
[21]
Sudan Floods (2013) Unmet health and social needs Increase numbers: Volunteer aid including healthcare and dental care
Increase support: training and psychological support for volunteers
Volunteers Community health services, other Analytical–qualitative Case Study Quality of response measured against a framework (Sphere Handbook)
Broz (2009)
[22]
Hurricane Katrina (2005) Unmet health and social needs Increase numbers: cross-sector staff deployments, auxiliary health clinic Physicians, nurses, public health workers, students Community health services, primary health care Analytical–mixed methods case study Lessons learned
Buajaroen (2013)
[23]
Thailand flooding (2011) Damaged/reduced/insufficient facilities, unmet health and social needs Increase numbers: solidarity staffing (e.g., deployments to/from other jurisdictions), cross-sector staff deployments Physicians, nurses, students, volunteers Community health services, critical care, emergency medical services, hospitals, primary health care, public health Analytical–qualitative case study Data about workforce; data about services; data about cost
Comeau (2014)
[24]
Hurricane Ike (2008) Damaged/reduced/insufficient facilities Increase flexibility: rapid upskilling/reskilling existing and available workers (e.g., laid off), longer term upskilling/reskilling other workers, alternative deployments for health workers whose normal duties are temporarily suspended, new roles, expanded roles Physicians, nurse specialists Critical care, hospitals Observational–descriptive Data on patients/procedures (outcomes), enablers
Connelly (2006)
[25]
Hurricane Katrina (2005) Damaged/reduced/insufficient facilities, mass casualty/patient surge, unmet health and social needs Increase numbers: solidarity staffing (e.g., deployments to/from other jurisdictions)
Increase support: Enabling communication with home, immunization services for volunteer medical providers
Physicians, nurses, paramedics Critical care, emergency medical services, hospitals Observational–descriptive Lessons learned
Currier (2006)
[26]; Bailey (2008)
[27]
Hurricane Katrina (2005) Unmet health and social needs Increase numbers: solidarity staffing (e.g., deployments to/from other jurisdictions), cross-sector staff deployments, interjurisdictional mobility, medical volunteerism
Increase support: Provision of child care services for front-line workers, gasoline
Physicians, nurses, dental workers, mental health workers, midwives, pharmacists Primary health care, other Analytical–multiple method case review Data about patients/procedures, lessons learned
D'Amore (2005)
[28]
Tropical Storm Allison (2001) Damaged/reduced/insufficient facilities, mass casualty/patient surge, unmet health and social needs Increase numbers: solidarity staffing (e.g., deployments to/from other jurisdictions), emergency relief field hospital
Increase support: Mental health services, Housing for front-line workers
Physicians, nurses, medical imaging workers, medical laboratory workers, mental health workers, military health workers, pharmacists, public health workers Critical care, diagnostic services, emergency medical services, hospitals, public health, other Observational–descriptive Data about patients/procedures, challenges (problems), lessons learned
Deal (2006)
[29]
Hurricane Rita (2005) Unmet health and social needs Increase numbers: cross-sector staff deployments
Increase flexibility: task shifting/delegation
Nurses, community health workers, personal support workers, students, volunteers Long-term care, other Observational–descriptive Challenges/enablers (opportunities), lessons learned
Edwards (2007)
[30]
Hurricane Katrina (2005) Unmet health and social needs Increase numbers: cross-sector staff deployments, Staffing a triage center
Increase flexibility: cross-sector deployment
Physicians, nurses, mental health providers, pharmacists, students, volunteers Community health services, diagnostic services, emergency medical services, mental health services, primary health care, public health Observational–descriptive Data about patients/procedures, data about workforce, lessons learned
Grover (2020)
[31]
Hurricane Florence Unmet health and social needs Increase flexibility: telehealth/virtual care, task shifting/delegation, expanded roles Physicians, nurses, paramedics Community health services, other Analytical–quantitative Data about patients/procedures; effectiveness of approach
Klein (2007)
[32]
Hurricane Katrina (2005) Damaged/reduced/insufficient facilities, mass casualty/patient surge, unmet health and social needs Increase numbers: solidarity staffing (e.g., deployments to/from other jurisdictions), Emergency medical relief, field hospital Physicians, nurses, paramedics, pharmacy workers Critical care, diagnostic services, emergency medical services, hospitals, primary health care, public health Observational–descriptive Data about workforce, challenges (problems)
Lawlor (2014)
[33]
Tropical Cyclone Yasi (2011) Mass casualty/patient surge Increase flexibility: alternative deployments for health workers whose normal duties are temporarily suspended
Increase support: Provision of child care services for front-line workers
Nurses, volunteers Hospitals Analytical–survey Data about services, perceptions of services
Parak (2019)
[34]
Hurricane Maria (2017) Damaged/reduced/insufficient facilities, mass casualty/patient surge, unmet health and social needs Increase flexibility: alternative deployments for health workers whose normal duties are temporarily suspended, task shifting/delegation, new roles, cross-sector deployment, expanded roles Physicians, nurses Emergency medical services, hospitals Observational–descriptive Data on patients/procedures, (enablers) what went well
Read (2016)
[35]
Typhoon Haiyan (2013) Damaged/reduced/insufficient facilities, mass casualty/patient surge, unmet health and social needs Increase numbers: solidarity staffing (e.g., deployments to/from other jurisdictions), international emergency medical relief, field hospital; Physicians, nurses, paramedics Critical care, diagnostic services, emergency medical services, hospitals Analytical–prospective case study Data about patients/procedures,
Taylor (2007)
[36]
Hurricane Wilma (2005) Mass casualty/patient surge, unmet health and social needs Increase numbers: mobile medical vans Physicians, nurses, pharmacists, public health workers, social workers Community health services, mental health services, primary health care, other Observational–descriptive data about patients/procedures
Waisman (2003)
[37]
Hurricane Mitch (1998) Mass casualty/patient surge, unmet health and social needs, reduced workforce Increase numbers: solidarity staffing (e.g., deployments to/from other jurisdictions), international emergency relief Physicians Emergency medical services, hospitals, primary health care Observational–descriptive Data about patients/procedures, enablers/challenges
Weeks (2007)
[38]
Hurricane Katrina (2005) Unmet health and social needs Increase numbers: cross-sector staff deployments, shelter volunteering
Increase support: mental health services
Nurses, mental health providers, social workers, students Emergency medical services, mental health services, primary health care Observational–descriptive Lessons learned
Wyte-Lake (2018)
[39]
Superstorm Sandy (2012) Excess staff within unit Increase numbers: cross-sector staff deployments
Increase flexibility: alternative deployments for health workers whose normal duties are temporarily suspended, cross-sector deployment Increase support: housing for front-line workers, Home support for front-line workers, Transportation for redeployed workers
All hospital workers Critical care, diagnostic services, emergency medical services, hospitals, mental health services Analytical–qualitative case study Lessons learned