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Table 3 Disciplines and skills of IM according to the domains and activities

From: WHO competency framework for health authorities and institutions to manage infodemics: its development and features

Disciplines involved in IM Specific skills IM domains where the specific skills are needed
Argumentation theory
Behavioral sciences
Cognitive science
Communication sciences (from interpersonal to mass communication)
Community engagement
Complexity science
Computational social science
Digital health
Education and pedagogical sciences
Health campaigns
Health communication
Health economics
Health informatics
Health literacy
Health service research
Health system research
Knowledge translation
Knowledge dissemination
Implementation science
Infodemiology and IM (theories, methods, tools, strategies and processes)
Institutional development
Media and Journalism
Media literacy
Narratology and the rhetoric of narratives
Persuasion research
Public health (history of public health and best practice)
Organizational management
Quantitative and qualitative research methods
Risk communication
Science literacy
Scientific journalism
Social listening and social media monitoring tools
(Social) marketing
Social inequalities and health inequity
Study design
Team communication
User experience design (UXD)
• Strengthen and develop all main IM processes within institutions
• Identify and apply standards for ethical conduct in IM
• Build a network of partners for coordinated IM
Domain 1
Infodemic management
• Identify mis/disinformation
• Utilize research methods, social listening and social media monitoring tools and methods to collect data (online and offline) on an infodemic
• Identify targets for IM interventions
Domain 2
Prepare and monitor
2.1. Listen
• Tailor health communication and dissemination of health information
• Pretest messages for relevance, readability, comprehension and potential impact
• Maintain, promote and build trust in health institutions
• Communicate with the media
• Empower spokespersons to speak on behalf of institutions
Domain 2
Prepare and monitor
2.2. Inform
• Develop and implement interventions that address individual, community, cultural and societal-level factors affecting trust and resilience to misinformation Domain 3
Detect and intervene
3.1. Intervene
• Develop and utilize standard operating procedures to collect, analyze and correct misinformation on various levels
• Build and strengthen coordinated work with partner organizations and stakeholders to act on mis/disinformation in a timely way
Domain 3
Detect and intervene
3.2. Counter
• Design and conduct impact studies
• Reflect on the results of interventions to refine overall institutional strategies against infodemics
Domain 3
Detect and intervene
3.3. Monitor
• Use frameworks and research methods to build and evaluate interventions to strengthen individuals’ and communities’ resilience against mis/disinformation
• Use theories, frameworks and strategies of communication to build or reinforce trust in institutions
Domain 3
Detect and intervene
3.4. Support
• Synthesize and present existing evidence and guidance from IM findings for specific country contexts
• Apply principles and tools of knowledge translation from IM findings to empower and reinforce health systems in IM
• Promote inter-organizational work and collaboration
Domain 4
4.1. Prepare
• Identify strengths and limitations in institutions’ IM programs and procedures
• Translate the findings from IM interventions and best practices to strengthen institutions’ strategies
• Collect, synthesize and transfer the findings from partners or other relevant institutions
Domain 4
4.2 Ongoing monitoring and strategy refinement
• Identify relevant topics, needs and gaps within institutions for IM training
• Build institutional relationships with relevant stakeholders (from professional categories to the mass media)
• Use the theories, methods and principles of professional learning to design, implement and evaluate training in infodemiology and IM within the institution
Domain 4
4.3 Building capacity