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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of the time and motion data

From: Human resources needs for universal access to antiretroviral therapy in South Africa: a time and motion study

  Overall By clinic
Clinic A Clinic B Clinic C
Observation days, n 13 5 4 4
Observation period 12 August to 1 September 19 to 26 August 12 to 18 August 27 August to 1 September
HHWs observed, n     
Nurse 6 2 2 2
Counselor 4 2 1 1
Doctor 3 1 1 1
Total patients observed, n 334 115 120 99
Average duration of work day, hours    
Overall 6.3 5.2 7.3 4.9
Nurse 7.1 5.2 7.3 5.3
Counselor 5.8 5.3 6.7 5.8
Doctor 5.4 5.1 7.7 3.4
Proportion of time (%) spent on    
Direct patient contact a     
Overall 83 86 87 76
Nurse 83 84 83 82
Counselor 74 87 82 20
Doctor 92 91 94 89
Indirect patient contactb     
Overall 9 7 9 10
Nurse 9 8 13 6
Counselor 13 6 8 44
Doctor 4 8 4 3
Other c     
Overall 9 7 5 14
Nurse 9 9 3 12
Counselor 13 7 10 36
Doctor 4 2 2 8
Average time per patient, minutes (95% CI)    
Overall 12 (9 to 14) 14 (9 to 18) 11 (8 to 13) 10 (5 to 16)
Nurse 10 (6 to 13) 12 (6 to 18) 12 (7 to 17) 7 (1 to 12)
Counselor 14 (9 to 19) 15 (7 to 23) 8 (5 to 11) 43 (2 to 83)
Doctor 13 (9 to 16) 15 (2 to 27) 15 (11 to 18) 9 (7 to 11)
  1. HHW, HIV health worker.
  2. aDirect patient contact included activities such as talking to patients, venepuncture, physical examination, and prescribing medication.
  3. bIndirect patient contact included activities such as consultations, meetings with colleagues, and administrative work.
  4. c’Other’ consisted of breaks and idle time between patients.