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Table 2 Item results for given sets, separately for leaders and employees and a two-way analysis of variance for total scores

From: Capacity of middle management in health-care organizations for working with people—the case of Slovenian hospitals

Questionnaire items: leaders or employees Leaders Employees
Health-care provision Health administration Health-care provision Health administration
Set 1: employee development Two-way analysis of variance for total scores: position (leader : employee) P < 0.001; area (health care : administration) P = 0.435
N M SD N M SD N M SD N M SD
Each employee at the unit I lead is familiar with their hospital training and development programme for the next four years. 104 3.34 0.84 14 3.43 1.09 645 2.71 1.11 118 2.85 1.22
I am familiar with my hospital training and development programme for the next four years.
When preparing the training and development programme for each employee, I always include their views and needs. 103 4.02 0.73 14 3.86 0.86 644 2.64 1.12 115 2.75 1.32
I participate in the preparation of my annual training and development programme and am given the opportunity to present my views and needs.
I hold a meeting at least once a year with each employee in my unit to discuss their work and involvement in the unit. 103 3.90 0.91 14 3.86 1.10 643 3.52 1.22 118 3.53 1.27
I meet my leader at least once a year to discuss my work and my involvement in the unit.
I equally promote the development of an area of work at the unit I lead and the development of employees at my unit. 103 4.40 0.65 14 4.21 0.70 642 3.71 1.08 120 3.37 1.22
The leader of the unit where I work promotes the development of an area of work at that unit and the development of its employees equally.  
As a unit leader I encourage the capacity for innovation, learning new skills and applying them in practice in my employees. 103 4.55 0.61 14 4.43 0.76 648 3.84 1.02 119 3.49 1.21
The leader of the unit where I work encourages the capacity for innovation, learning new skills and applying them in practice.  
I prepare the annual training and education programme together with the employees at my unit and make sure it is congruent with unit and hospital needs. The leader of the unit where I work prepares the annual training and education programme together with their employees and makes sure it is congruent with unit and hospital needs. 103 4.23 0.76 14 4.07 1.07 647 3.37 1.17 118 3.05 1.35
Set 2: personal involvement Two-way analysis of variance for total scores: position (leader: employee) P < 0.001; area (health care: administration) P = 0.352.
I give employees an opportunity to suggest improvements for key projects being introduced into practice. 104 4,45 0.64 14 4.29 0.73 648 2.79 1.06 119 2.95 1.25
My work at the hospital provides me with an opportunity to suggest improvements for key projects being introduced into practice.
I create conditions for employees to contribute their knowledge in change-implementation processes. 104 4.41 0.60 14 4.50 0.52 649 3.05 0.99 118 3.12 1.13
I can contribute my knowledge in the change-implementation processes affecting my area of work through well managed work process improvement groups.
I give employees an opportunity to be actively involved in the change-implementation processes at the hospital. 104 4.23 0.69 14 4.43 0.65 646 3.64 0.93 118 3.79 1.06
I desire to be actively involved in the change-implementation processes at the hospital.
I am satisfied with my status and leadership role in the hospital. 104 3.85 0.95 14 4.21 0.70 648 2.96 1.08 119 3.03 1.33
I am happy with my status and role in our hospital. My suggestions and wishes for my professional development are taken into account.  
Set 3: leader–employee relationship Two-way analysis of variance for total scores: position (leader : employee) P < 0.001; area (health care : administration) P = 0.371
I offer my employees support and try to understand them when they turn to me with problems. 103 4.50 0.62 14 4.29 0.83 646 3.73 1.06 121 3.62 1.13
The leader of the unit where I work communicates with employees by showing their support for work-related problems.  
I provide employees with clear feedback on their work. 104 4.30 0.75 14 4.29 0.47 646 3.73 1.07 120 3.63 1.17
My leader provides me with clear feedback on my work.
When expressing dissatisfaction with an employee’s work, I encourage them to improve instead of displaying anger. 104 4.09 0.70 14 3.93 0.73 645 3.67 1.03 119 3.61 1.15
When my leader expresses dissatisfaction with my work or results, they encourage me to improve instead of displaying anger.
I listen to my colleagues attentively and am open to their suggestions, even if I don’t agree with their proposals. 105 4.32 0.64 14 4.14 0.66 642 3.72 1.00 120 3.64 1.12
The unit leader is open to suggestions from employees, even if they don’t agree with the proposals.
Set 4: motivation Two-way analysis of variance for total scores: position (leader : employee) P < 0.001; area (health care : administration) P = 0.228
The goals of the organization are clear; all employees are familiar with them. 105 3.71 0.99 14 3.86 0.86 647 3.11 1.09 121 3.31 1.18
The activities of all employees are in synergy; we all work towards the same goal, our actions are not conflicting. 104 3.63 0.84 14 3.93 0.73 645 3.01 1.03 119 3.06 1.07
Overall, we are successful in meeting our goals: our actions are goal-driven and not controlled by emergency calls, cell phones, e-mails or urgent tasks coming from our superiors. 105 3.69 0.78 14 3.93 0.62 635 3.28 0.94 119 3.26 1.04
We all try to do the best in everything we do. 105 4.17 0.75 14 4.07 0.83 649 4.02 0.97 120 3.84 1.05
There is a strong sense of optimism present in the organization. 105 3.37 0.92 14 3.71 1.20 644 3.13 1.09 120 3.13 1.19
We do not give up when things become difficult or go wrong. 105 3.84 0.84 14 3.86 0.66 648 3.62 0.97 120 3.60 1.06
People in our organization truly enjoy their work; their energy levels are very high. 104 3.36 0.91 14 3.50 0.94 641 2.80 1.09 120 2.95 1.21
People in our organization are self-motivated; we do not require external incentive to perform our work. 105 3.30 0.91 14 3.43 0.94 641 3.00 1.04 119 2.98 1.17
Our organization is characterized by individual commitment, a sense of responsibility, loyalty and taking initiative. 103 3.55 0.89 14 3.79 0.80 641 3.23 0.95 120 3.18 1.12
There is an overall sense of satisfaction with the organization and working conditions among the employees. 105 3.21 0.88 14 3.64 0.84 643 2.74 1.07 119 2.94 1.24
  1. N, number of respondents who answered an item in the set; M, mean value on a 1 to 5 scale; SD, standard deviation.