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Table 1 A typological framework for defining absenteeism with examples of the different forms of absenteeism

From: Absenteeism amongst health workers – developing a typology to support empiric work in low-income countries and characterizing reported associations

  Planned Unplanned
Voluntary Statutory absence (annual/ vacation, study, maternity, off-duty leave), training, workshops, conferences [22, 2426] Sickness absence to attend to personal matters as they arise but reported as minor illness, often short-term self-certified [26, 35]
Failing to report to work and not giving a valid and acceptable reason for one’s absence (e.g. moonlighting) [26, 35]
Involuntary Long-term sickness e.g. ≥90 days in Scandinavian countries [27] Transport problem, taking care of a sick child/relative, personal injury, sickness that is medicallycertified [52]
Absence caused by social obligation rather than for personal interest/benefit e.g. attendance at pre-specified event such as a political or community meeting. In such cases, a different allowable reason for absence may be provided to the employer in order to get time off [35]